The scientific study on mental processes and behaviour in humans.
Aim of psychology is to describe, predict, control and explain thoughts feelings and behaviurs.
4 years study in a psych course, 2 years post graduate study - 6 years study
Qualified medical docter, 6 years uni, 12 months internship, 1 years work as a resident medical officer
Breaks down human conciousness into parts then anaylises those parts to develop theories. Had popular universtiy lectures.
Influencial in establishing psychology in America. Intrested in Memory and emotion, conciousness, relationship between concious experience and body, sensation, perception and differences in individuals
Humans having sexual and aggressive urges and an UNCONCIOUS level of mind. Researched how past conflict experiences affect personalioty development. NO SCEINTIFIC PROOF
John B. Watson
Steered away from concious and unconcious levels of mind. Introduced behaviourism which is looking into how behaviour is moulded and learned from experiences.Scientifically experimented to prove theories.
Developing our personalities as we overcome hurdles to achieve goals in our lives. Sort after the positives in people and called his pateints clients. He was influecial in establishing clinical psychology.
This perspective is the belief that different parts of the brain do different things. Key improvements of this perspective are the discovery of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin, mapping out the genome, Brain scanners such as MRI and PET scans which proved that memory, perception and thinking are located at different parts of the brain.
Behviour is acquired through rewards and disaplines in our environment. Burhuss Skinner majorly contributed to this perspective by proving that rats can learn to press a lever to retreive food.
Study of mental processes goign through our brain which determine outcomes, Cognitive psychologists and explained mental processes to be similiar to a computer, Information is recived, sotred and recovered when needed. They believe information about our environment is stored in many places in the brain.
Looks into how different cultures, sex's and races determine behaviour. Socio-cultural perspective is there so psychologists dont overlook the importance of socio and cultural influences.
A combination of all the psychological perspectives.
Light travels through the eye onto the retina where the elctromagnetic energy is converted into electric impulses so the brain can register it.
When the electric impuses travel through the optic nerve to the visual cortex.
Organisation and interpretation
Assmmebling parts of what we see into a whole form such as a house. Interpretation is when the brain puts a name to what we see.
steps in psychological research
1. Identifying research problem. 2. Constructing a hypothesis which involves the people being tested, quality of answers, measured by, control group. 3. Designing the method. 4. Collecting data. 5. Analysing Data. 6. Interpreting data. 7. Reporting findings.
When we percieve something because of past experiences of expectations of what we want to see.
How we interpret things differently because of the setting we are in. The B-13 Experiment
The way in which we are more liekyl to see what we want if we are motivated to do so.
The way in which we are likely to interpret images differently becasue of past experience. Experiment - 10 college students and 10 police academy students shown a image which can be interpreted violently or non-violently for a split second and found the police student saw the violent side more.
The way in which interpret visual information differently due to cultural factors. Experiment - Psychologists showed a black and white picture of a dog to people in tanzania and they couldent work out that it was a dog even though they were familiar with them.
1 - Childhood - 2-10 - Increasingly independant from their parents. Aquire basic skills of reading and writting. Cognitive skills develop as they learn right from wrong.
2-Adolescence-10-24 - Puberty (many physical and psychological changes), Seeking independance from parents, friends and peers have considerable influence. More logical, complex and idealistic thought processes
3-Early adulthood - 20-40 - (wester countries) establishing financial and personal independance and getting a career. Select a partner. take on parenting.
4-Middle age - 40-65 - Expanding social and personal involvements, raising offspring, developing an intimate relationship.
5-Older age-65-death - Acceptance of you cant do all you used to, considerable adjustments to changes in life.
What is it? ADHD is a mental illness in which a child is inatentive, hyperactive and has impulsive behaviour that is more severe and frequently occuring than other children. They have trouble listening for more than a few minutes and they are easily distincted by their low concentration.
Treatments? ADHD has no cure but like autism it can be managed by medication and behavioural therapy. Medication reduces ADHD symptoms and about 70% of children get improvement on their attention span and results at school.
Causes? ADHD causes are unknown but doctors and psychologists tend to agree that there is a neurological issue int he brain. Heredity and environmental factors are thought to play a part in ADHD such as parents with ADHD are 4-5 times more liekly to have a child with the condition and environmnetal factors such as when in the uterus a mother in exposed to nicotine, alcohol or maternal stress.
Age group? ADHD occurs for the first time in childhood and aroudn the age of 5 parents notice something 'different' about the,m. ADHD stays with you your whole life but there is a 25% chance they will 'outgrow' some symptoms such as hyperactivity.
Gender? ADHD is made up of 90% boys and 10% girls, one reason for this large difference is said to be because girls are more tolerable with ADHD.
Symptoms? Symptoms are when a child has fidgeting, difficulty remaining seated, easily distracted, difficulty following instructions, excessive talking, engaging in physically harmful activities, doesent seem to listen and disrupts other children for more than 6 months straight.
DSM Catogory - Disorders usually first diognosed in infancy, childhood and adolescence.