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Ontological

Concerned with being

A priori

Uses reason alone rather than relying on evidence of senses or world around us

Deductive

Premises contain conclusion

Analytic

True by definition

Plantinga

Offered modal form of the argument: God must exist in all possible worlds since maximally great and excellent

Malcolm

God's existence neither impossible nor contingent=>necessary
Doctrine of existence as perfection='remarkably queer'

Gasking

Developed ontological argument for non-existence of God

Russell

'Cows are brown and exist'=tautology, only tells us one thing (i.e. 'cows are brown')

Kant

Establish existence then define not vice versa

Aquinas

God's existence has to be demonstrated a posteriori, Anselm's definition of God not necessarily shared by all believers

Hume

Existence could only ever be contingent

Gaunilo

Used example of perfect island to demonstrate that if logic of argument applied to things other than God it led to invalid conclusions

Counter-arguments to Gaunilo

Perfect island: no intrinsic maximum, subjective and contingent

Atheist

Has failed to grasp full implications of concept of God according to Anselm

Reductio ad absurdum

Method of reasoning aiming to show truth of something by reducing to absurdity the very opposite

Anselm's definition of God

'that than which nothing greater can be conceived'

Descartes

French rationalist philosopher

Descartes' definition of God

'supremely perfect being'

Cancer, evil dictators and tsunamis

Things we would consider more perfect if only existed in the mind

De dicto

By definition

In intellectu

In the mind

In re

In reality

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