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which structural feature is never associated with cis-trans isomerism?

triple bonds

different conformations of a molecule are the result of what?

rotation around C-C bonds

what is the typical size of hydrocarbons found in gasoline?

C5 - C12

What is true about the solubility of alkenes in water?

no alkenes are soluble in water

which vitamin is water insoluble?

Vitamin A

how many constitutional isomers exist for the formula C4H10O

7

how many constitutional isomers are there with the formula C3H6F2

4

what is true when there is a single substituent on cyclohexane

the substituent will prefer to be equitorial

for cyclohexane, which best explains why the twisted boat and the boat differ in stability?

1,4-dipole hydrogen interaction

the common name of 1,2,3-ethantriol

glycerol

the delocalized pi system in benzene is formed by a cyclic overlap of 6 ____ orbitals

p

antiaromatic molecules contain ______ pi electrons

4n

what ether was frequently used as a general anesthetic in the 19th century?

diethyl ether

which reaction of an alkene requires a transition metal catalyst?

hydrogenation

Which element is present in thiols but not in alcohols?

Sulfur

Which alcohols is used as an oxygenate additive in gasoline?

ethanol

1,2-ethanediol is also known as

ethylene glycol

the most common reactions involving aromatics are...

substitution reactions

what type of alcohol is formed by the hydration of 2-butene?

secondary

what is formed by the chlorination of 1-butene?

1,2-dichlorobutane

what is false, regarding fatty acids?

unsaturated fats stimulate cholesterol synthesis in the liver, resulting in an increase in blood cholesterol levels

Teflon is made from monomers which, in addition to carbon, contain which of the following?

fluorine

according to the text, which of the following is NOT part of the "big six" recyclable polymers?

polytetrafluoroethylene

what describes the relationship between these two sugars?

in deoxyribose the oxygen lost is from the hydroxyl on C-2 of ribose

what is the geometry of the carbonyl group of an aldehyde or ketone?

trigonal planar

what products are produced when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol, in the presence of sulfuric acid?

an ester + water

what is true about the spacial distribution of the hydroxyl groups of alpha-D-glucopyranose?

the hydroxyl on C-1 is equitorial, those on C-2,C-3, and C-4 are axial

which type of reaction is used to obtain fatty acids from animal fats?

hydrolysis

what is the least soluble in water?

heptanal

a sample consists of 1 mole of the (+) enantiomer and 3 moles of the (-) enantiomer. what is the optical purity?

50%

what is obtained by the complete hydrolysis of cellulose?

glucose

what is true of a molecule which contains one stereocenter?

it will always be chiral

what is glycogen similar to?

amylopectin

what is the minimum number of oxygen atoms present in an acetal?

2

which carbohydrate derivative forms a gel-like matrix in joints and the vitreous humor of the eye?

hyaluronate

what is the most common form in which polysaccharides are stored in animals?

glycogen

in which class of compounds is the carbon most oxidized?

carboxylic acids

the reaction of which combination of reactants result in the formation of a hemiacetal?

aldehyde and alcohol

what is the structure of cellulose?

unbranched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1-->4-beta-glycoside linkages

which sugar is not a reducing sugar?

sucrose

what determines the blood type in humans?

three or four monosaccharides attached to a membrane protein on the surface of red blood cells

what is the correct order of ease of hydrolysis? (most difficult to hydrolyze listed first)

urea, methyl acetate, acetic anhydride, phosgene

starch is produced by ______, and its major function is _________.

plants; energy storage

how many stereocenters are there in L-idopyranose?

5 or more

what is the correct order for ease of hydrolysis? (most difficult to hydrolyze listed first)

amides, esters, anhydrides

what is kevlar?

a polyamide

what has the highest boiling point?

acetic acid

in order to distinguish the R and S forms of a molecule, an enzyme must have binding sites for _______ groups on the stereocenter

3

what is obtained by the complete hydrolysis of starch?

glucose

what is the relationship between the number of stereocenters in a monosaccharaide in its open-chain and ring structures?

the open-chain form contains one less stereocenter than the ring does

how many aldehydes have the formula C5H10O

4

Soaps are...

salts of carboxylic acids that have many carbon atoms in a long hydrocarbon chain

what functional group is found in aldehydes?

CHO

what is TRUE of a molecule which contains two stereocenters?

it MAY be achiral

what will give a positive Tollen's test?

simple aldehydes

what two sugars should be eliminated from ones diet if they have galactosemia?

lactose and galactose

what is the approximate pKa for carboxylic acids?

3-5

what correctly describes the relationship between the dextro/levo system?

all levarotatory compounds rotate plane-polarized light counterclockwise

as soap removes grease from a material, what occurs?

the grease is enclosed within the body of a micelle

what monosaccharide is found in cellulose, starch, and glycogen?

glucose

what products are formed in the complete hydrolysis of phosgene?

CO2, H2O, HCl

what acid is associated with "locker room odor?"

butanoic acid

when wine is exposed to air, it starts to sour. Which compound is responsible for this sour taste?

acetic acid

what is the IUPAC name of sec-butyl ethyl ketone?

4-methyl-3-hexanone

which of the following results in hard water?

Ca2+

how many stereoisomers does C5H11Cl have?

6

the cyclic structures of monosaccharides are what?

hemiacetals

which carbon is the site of reaction when fructose reacts to form fructoside?

C-2

which dicarboxylic acid is found in spinach?

oxalic acid

the configuration at which carbon of an aldohexose determines if the pentose has D or L configuration?

C-5

glycosides are examples of which class of compounds?

acetals

polyethylene terephthalate is an example of a...

polyester

T/F Type A blood contains an additional D-galactose unite, and type B blood contains the monosacharide N-acetyl-D-galactosamine

false

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