|Spiral Curriculum||Curriculum in which students repeat the study of a subject at different grade levels and each time at a higher level of difficulty and in greater depth.|
|Comprehensive Musicianship|| *Method of teaching students music that focuses on the relation of musical content towards performance.|
*Parts relate to the whole picture.
*Integration is the foundation for the philosophy of Comprehensive Musicianship.
|Merriam's Functions of Music||*Music serves the same function regardless of culture, society, or level of sophistication.|
*Includes: emotional expression, aesthetic enjoyment, entertainment, communication, symbolic representations, enforcing conformity to social institutions and religious rituals, continuity and stability of culture,integration of society.
|House Wright Declaration/Vision 2020|| *Promotes the well-rounded experience of formal and informal music education.|
*Encourages educators to be knowledgeable and exposes the community with musical experiences.
|Philosophical Research|| *proposed change or solution|
*hour glass- start broad and then narrow down
*similar to qualitative- have to support your position in your hypothesis
|ISME|| International Society of Music Educators|
*formed at UNESCO conference to stimulate music ed. as an integral part of general ed.
* evolved to a world wide service platform for music educators who want their profession to be taken seriously by educators of other disciplines
|Qualitative|| *Addresses broad questions allowing research questions to emerge from the data.|
*data scrutinized for patterns
*results reported with thick descriptions and direct quotes
*support comes from triangulation- consistency of findings from multiple sources
|Descriptive Research|| *looks for relationships|
*maybe quantitative or qualitative
*cannot discover cause and effect
|Multiple Intelligence|| Gardner proposed theory in 1983|
*emphasis on teaching multiple ways
*used to analyze and better describe the concept of intelligence
|Assessment|| Must Be:|
*aligned with the standard intended to be measured
*accurate and reliable estimate of students performance relative to the standard
***An assessment cannot be valid if it is not reliable.
|Theory of Song Development|| 1. Start with lyrics|
3. Melodic contour
4. Pitch and tonalities
Articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners.
*Theory of knowledge that argues humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between personal experiences and ideas.
|National Board Certification|| *Maintains high standards for what should know|
*Provides a national voluntary system for certification for teachers meeting certain criteria
*Links standards to teacher practice
|Methodology|| Section that contains a "recipe" for the study:|
This helps determine if the research was done carefully and whether the results apply to other groups of people.
|Lowell Mason|| Father of Music Education:|
*Started the idea that music could be taught to children in public schools
*Became the 1st teacher of music in schools in Boston
*Petitioned Boston School Board to include vocal music in elementary schools.
*If a child could read, they could sing!
Reimer: believed the answer is in the score. Extreme formalist- don't need to play it to understand it.
-doesn't care if there is sound to music
-music is expressive of emotion, doesn't represent emotion
-by studying the score you can understand the emotion
-music education for aesthetic education
|David Elliot|| *No music outside of culture|
*music is praxial
*must practice it to feel it
*the do it philosophy- must do it to enjoy and understand music
*sing it, play it, perform it
|Multiculturalism||*Acknowledgement of the diverse population of the US and the intent to help students understand the world and the American society in which they live.|
*MENC began requesting that music of all periods, styles, forms, and cultures belong in the curruculum.
*Government also started the Ethnic Heritage Program.
|Scientific Steps|| 1. Find a problem|
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis
4. Form conclusion
5. Problem solved or go back to #2
|Assimilation|| Incorporate new experience into an already existing framework without changing the framework. |
EX: learning how to drive at 16???
|Accommodation||Process of re-framing ones mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences.|
Organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures that represent a person's understanding of the world.
People use schema to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding (stereotypes).
|Piaget|| *The learner is viewed as an information processor.|
*Children learn through the play process. Adults role is to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct.
|Lev Vgotsky|| *Suggests that knowledge is first constructed in a social context and then appropriated by individuals|
*Argues that social interaction proceeds development
*Consciousness and cognition are the product of socialization and social behavoir
*Scaffolding is building upon knowledge children already know
|Psychoacoustics|| The study of sound perception.|
Human sensation in response to a physical stimuli, particularly tonal sensations
*A view that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to the environmental stimuli.
We start with a clean slate and behavior is shaped through the positive and/or negative reinforcement.
*Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the chances that a behavior will repeat.
|Reliability|| *Test consistency|
*Strives to reinforce the validity by eliminating and outside influence
*If a participant retested, they would get the same results every time. Make the test reliable.
*Dependable- same results on successive trials
|Mayday Group||*Actions for change in the music education- descriptive/experimental research|
*Group of music educators, theorists, and methods experts with intention of critically re-examining the status of music education
*An international "think tank":
---to apply critical theory and critical thinking to the purpose and practice of music education.
---to affirm the central importance of musical participation in human life and thus value of music in all general education.
|Tanglewood Symposium|| *Designed to have an impact on curriculum|
*Ignored competency expectations of students as a result of music instruction
*Sociologist, labor leaders,, scientists, and music educators had the symposium because of urgent issues regarding criticism and attacks on music ed
|JRME|| Journal of Research in Music Education|
Sponsored by MENC
*Provides current formal research, descriptive/experimental research that is peer reviewed.
|Hawthorne Effect|| *Participants improve because of being studied|
*Effect due to attention rather than experimental treatment
|IIMP|| International Index to Music Periodicals|
*up to date, full text, pdfs, that give access to periodicals, journals, and dissertations (some only have abstracts)
|MSNC|| Music Supervisors National Conference|
*changed from MSNC to MENC in 1934
*Music supervisors were members of the National Educators Association who were embracing every aspect of music as it was taught in the schools.
|Update|| Printed in MENC|
*Active research that is brought to the classroom to enable teachers to apply results of research readily in music classrooms and rehearsal halls.
|Flow|| Flow v. Aesthetic Education|
*balance between challenging and skills ability to find optimal teaching
*if you challenge at a high rate with high skills, you will find optimal flow.
*low skills and high challenge= anxiety
*low challenge and high skills= boredom
|Likert Scake|| _____________________|
0 1 2 3 4 5
*strongest form of question
*chose a response to statement using a given qualitative scale
*use qualitative words that describe the quantitative numbers
*traditional 1-5 rating scale
|Validity|| *The test/survey measures the desired performance and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results|
*The assessment accurately reflects the learning it was designed to measure
|Experimental Research|| *Controls the environment as much as possible to allow a limited number of variables to be isolated and observed.|
*Generally research with people is quasi experimental because many variable cannot be controlled
"What happens if...?"