Curriculum in which students repeat the study of a subject at different grade levels and each time at a higher level of difficulty and in greater depth.
*Method of teaching students music that focuses on the relation of musical content towards performance.
*Parts relate to the whole picture.
*Integration is the foundation for the philosophy of Comprehensive Musicianship.
Merriam's Functions of Music
*Music serves the same function regardless of culture, society, or level of sophistication.
*Includes: emotional expression, aesthetic enjoyment, entertainment, communication, symbolic representations, enforcing conformity to social institutions and religious rituals, continuity and stability of culture,integration of society.
House Wright Declaration/Vision 2020
*Promotes the well-rounded experience of formal and informal music education.
*Encourages educators to be knowledgeable and exposes the community with musical experiences.
*proposed change or solution
*hour glass- start broad and then narrow down
*similar to qualitative- have to support your position in your hypothesis
International Society of Music Educators
*formed at UNESCO conference to stimulate music ed. as an integral part of general ed.
* evolved to a world wide service platform for music educators who want their profession to be taken seriously by educators of other disciplines
*Addresses broad questions allowing research questions to emerge from the data.
*data scrutinized for patterns
*results reported with thick descriptions and direct quotes
*support comes from triangulation- consistency of findings from multiple sources
*looks for relationships
*maybe quantitative or qualitative
*cannot discover cause and effect
Gardner proposed theory in 1983
*emphasis on teaching multiple ways
*used to analyze and better describe the concept of intelligence
*aligned with the standard intended to be measured
*accurate and reliable estimate of students performance relative to the standard
***An assessment cannot be valid if it is not reliable.
Theory of Song Development
1. Start with lyrics
3. Melodic contour
4. Pitch and tonalities
Articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners.
*Theory of knowledge that argues humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between personal experiences and ideas.
National Board Certification
*Maintains high standards for what should know
*Provides a national voluntary system for certification for teachers meeting certain criteria
*Links standards to teacher practice
Section that contains a "recipe" for the study:
This helps determine if the research was done carefully and whether the results apply to other groups of people.
Father of Music Education:
*Started the idea that music could be taught to children in public schools
*Became the 1st teacher of music in schools in Boston
*Petitioned Boston School Board to include vocal music in elementary schools.
*If a child could read, they could sing!
Reimer: believed the answer is in the score. Extreme formalist- don't need to play it to understand it.
-doesn't care if there is sound to music
-music is expressive of emotion, doesn't represent emotion
-by studying the score you can understand the emotion
-music education for aesthetic education
*No music outside of culture
*music is praxial
*must practice it to feel it
*the do it philosophy- must do it to enjoy and understand music
*sing it, play it, perform it
*Acknowledgement of the diverse population of the US and the intent to help students understand the world and the American society in which they live.
*MENC began requesting that music of all periods, styles, forms, and cultures belong in the curruculum.
*Government also started the Ethnic Heritage Program.
1. Find a problem
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis
4. Form conclusion
5. Problem solved or go back to #2
Incorporate new experience into an already existing framework without changing the framework.
EX: learning how to drive at 16???
Process of re-framing ones mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences.
Organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures that represent a person's understanding of the world.
People use schema to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding (stereotypes).
*The learner is viewed as an information processor.
*Children learn through the play process. Adults role is to provide appropriate materials for the child to interact and construct.
*Suggests that knowledge is first constructed in a social context and then appropriated by individuals
*Argues that social interaction proceeds development
*Consciousness and cognition are the product of socialization and social behavoir
*Scaffolding is building upon knowledge children already know
The study of sound perception.
Human sensation in response to a physical stimuli, particularly tonal sensations
*A view that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to the environmental stimuli.
We start with a clean slate and behavior is shaped through the positive and/or negative reinforcement.
*Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the chances that a behavior will repeat.
*Strives to reinforce the validity by eliminating and outside influence
*If a participant retested, they would get the same results every time. Make the test reliable.
*Dependable- same results on successive trials
*Actions for change in the music education- descriptive/experimental research
*Group of music educators, theorists, and methods experts with intention of critically re-examining the status of music education
*An international "think tank":
---to apply critical theory and critical thinking to the purpose and practice of music education.
---to affirm the central importance of musical participation in human life and thus value of music in all general education.
*Designed to have an impact on curriculum
*Ignored competency expectations of students as a result of music instruction
*Sociologist, labor leaders,, scientists, and music educators had the symposium because of urgent issues regarding criticism and attacks on music ed
Journal of Research in Music Education
Sponsored by MENC
*Provides current formal research, descriptive/experimental research that is peer reviewed.
*Participants improve because of being studied
*Effect due to attention rather than experimental treatment
International Index to Music Periodicals
*up to date, full text, pdfs, that give access to periodicals, journals, and dissertations (some only have abstracts)
Music Supervisors National Conference
*changed from MSNC to MENC in 1934
*Music supervisors were members of the National Educators Association who were embracing every aspect of music as it was taught in the schools.
Printed in MENC
*Active research that is brought to the classroom to enable teachers to apply results of research readily in music classrooms and rehearsal halls.
Flow v. Aesthetic Education
*balance between challenging and skills ability to find optimal teaching
*if you challenge at a high rate with high skills, you will find optimal flow.
*low skills and high challenge= anxiety
*low challenge and high skills= boredom
0 1 2 3 4 5
*strongest form of question
*chose a response to statement using a given qualitative scale
*use qualitative words that describe the quantitative numbers
*traditional 1-5 rating scale
*The test/survey measures the desired performance and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results
*The assessment accurately reflects the learning it was designed to measure
*Controls the environment as much as possible to allow a limited number of variables to be isolated and observed.
*Generally research with people is quasi experimental because many variable cannot be controlled
"What happens if...?"