Grade 6 - Trees and Forests

55 terms by hopebajaj 

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lichens

a fungus and algae working together. The fungus absorbs water and nutrients and the algae produces the food.

leaf scar

the scar left by a leaf of deciduous when the leaf falls off in the autumn

habitat

the natural home of an organism

upper canopy

top of the forest formed by leaves and branches of the tallest trees. Birds (owl, orioles), and insects (aphids, tent catipillars) make homes here

understory

level below the canopy. smaller trees and larger shrubs. provides sheltered space for birds and small mammals (squirrels, woodpeckers, insects).

photosynthesis

plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into oxygen and nutrients (sugars) for the plant to use

chlorophyll

part in the plant cell that makes the plan green; needed for photosysthesis

leaf

the flat green part of a plant that makes food (photosynthesis)

examples of ABIOTIC (non-living)

sunlight
climate
rocks
water
wind
soil

examples of BIOTIC (living)

plants
animals
microorganisms

examples of types of plants and animals that live in the forest

producers
consumers
decomposers

consumer

organisms that must get their food from their environment (do not make their own)

primary consumer

eats producers.
so mouse - primary producer
eats
grass - producer

secondary consumer

eats primary consumers.
so, snake - secondary consumer
eats
mouse - primary consumer

teritary consumers

eat secondary consumers.
so, hawk - teritary consumer
eats
snake - secondary consumer

tree cookies

determine the growth patterns of a tree

determining factors of cookies

1. differences in coloration and texture of new growth and old growth
2. if scars are present from fire or mechanical damage (very dark area)
3. if enough nutrients were present (ring growth)
4. if nutrients were not present (close together ring growth)
5. crowded conditions (close together)

to classify leaves

leaf shape
margins
leaf arrangement
leaf type

to classify bark

colour
texture
pattern

to classify trees

general shape
silhouette

food chain

the movement of food energy through the different levels of consumers

grass -> mouse(primary) -> snake(secondary) -> hawk(teritary)

water cycle

all water in an ecosystem is recycled - 1. water goes into soil (percipitation),
2. taken up by trees, given off by trees (transipiration),
3. goes into the air as water vapour, condenses in the air and
4. falls as percipitation

plants need water

to live

plants take up water from

their roots

plants lose their water through

transpiration from their leaves

coniferous trees

evergreen trees -
DO NOT loose their leaves in the fall
cone bearing trees, needle leaves
In Alberta - lodgepole pine and jackpine

deciduous trees

loose their leaves in the fall
often produce flowers and fruit
broad leaves
In Alberta - aspen and poplar

3 common decomposers

fungus
conks
lichens

nutrient cycle

starts with the producer and ends with the decomposers.
how nutrients are cycled between the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment

ecosystem

interactions that link the living things and non-living things in an environment

underbrush

level before the forest floor. ferns, wild flowers, stem plants, insects, butterflies, small mammals like mice, larger mammals like deer, skunks

transpiration

moisture given off by plants through their leaves

tree cookies

cross-section of a tree. helps to show the life story of a tree

stomata

tiny openings on the underside of a plants leaves. place where gases are exchanged

conks

fungus found attached to tree trunks. grow like steps or shelves and have growth rings like trees

girdle

a scar on the branch of a tree showing one year of the branches growth

cambium

inside of the trunk, where the tree grows.
Function - to produce new wood and bark

abiotic

the NON-living parts of the environment. soil, air, water, sunlight, temperature, wind, terrain

phloem

the inner part of the tree.
Function - carries food from the branches and leaves to the roots

heartwood

the older dead part of wood near the middle of the tree.
Function - for support

fungi

organisms that lack roots, stems and leaves. cannot photosynthesize to make own food. examples - mildews, rusts, smuts, mushrooms, conks, molds

decomposers

feed on dead materials and put nutrients back into the soil

succession

the changes in a forest over time

bark

outside covering of a tree.
Function - protection and insulation

pith

central core of the tree

biotic

the living parts of the environment. plants, animals and microorganisms

producer

plants that produce their own foods through photosynthesis

food web

a lot of food chains intertwined forming a network of interactions

mycorrhizal fungi

grow on the roots of trees. some help the tree by gathering nutrients and water. some harm trees

forest

trees and their environment

forests serve as a

habitat for a variety of living things (animals & plants)

forests are important to humans

for recreation (camping , hiking)

from trees we get

raw materials ( wood, fruit)

forests create a life by

supporting the environment (provide food, provides oxygen and exchanges carbon dioxide)

forests provide

job ( forest rangers, loggers)

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