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activation energy

the minimum amount of energy required by reacting particles in order to form the activated complex and lead to a reaction

accuracy

refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value

alloy

a mixture of elements that has metallic properties

alpha particle

a particle with two protons and two neutrons, with a 2+ charge; is equivalent to a helium-4 nucleus

atom

the smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element; is electrically neutral, spherically shaped, and composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Arrhenius Model

states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions, and a base is a substance that contains hydroxide grop and produces hydroxide ions

aufbau principle

states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available

Avogadro's number

the number 6.02 x 10^23 which is representative of the number of particles in a mole

amplitude

the height of the wave from origin to crest, or from the origin to a trough

average atomic mass

determined by multiplying each number isotope by the percent, and adding all of the products

anion

an ion that has a negative charge; forms when valence electrons are added to the outer energy level

atomic number

the number of protons in an atom

beta particle

a high speed electron with a 1- charge that is emitted during radioactive decay

barometer

an insturment tha tis used to measure atmospheric pressure

Boyle's Law

states that volume of a given amount of gas held at a constant temp varies inversely with the pressure

Bronsted Lowry model

model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen ion donor and the base is a hydroxide ion acceptor

cation

an ion that has a positive charge; forms when valence electrons are removed, giving the in a stable electron configuration

chemical change

the process involving one or more substances changing into new substances; also called a chemical reaction

chemical property

the ability or inability of a substance to comine with or change into one or more new substances

Charles's Law

states that volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temp at constant pressure

catalyst

a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy

coeffecient

the number written in front of a reactant or product

combined gas law

a single law combing boyles, charles, and lussacs laws that states the relationship among pressure, volume, and temp of a fixed amount of gas

combustion reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light; hydrocarbon + oxygen yields carbon dioxide + water

covalent bond

a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons; electronegativity difference is less than 1.7; two or more nonmetals

cathode ray

J.J. Thompson's experiment in which he discovered electrons and protons; created the plum pudding model

compound

combination of two or more elements

Dalton's atomic theory

5 part theory; right-everything is made of atoms, atoms combine and separate, and atoms form simple whole number ratios. wrong- you can't divide and atom, and he didn't know about isotopes

Dalton's law of partial pressures

states that the total pressure of amixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixtures

decomposition reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elemtns or new compounds

delocalized electrons

the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal and are not attached to any particular atom

deposition

when substance changes from gas/vapor to a solid, without first becoming liquid

double replacement reaction

a chemical reaction that involves the exchange of positive ions between two compounds and produces either a precipitate, a gas, or water

dependent variable

the variable whose value depends on the independent variable

dipole-dipole forces

the attractions b/w oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

electron

a negatively charged, fast moving particle found in the empty space surrounding nucleus

electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in an atom

electronegativity

indicates the relative ability of an elements atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond

electron sea model

shows that all metal atoms contribute their valence electrons to form a sea of electrons

element

a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler subtances by physical or chemical means

endothermic

a chemical reaction in which a grater amount of energy is required to break the existing bonds than is released when the new bonds form in the product molecules; heat absorbed

enthalpy

the heat content of a system at constant pressure

entropy

a measure of the randomness of the particles of the system

exothermic

a chemical reaction in which more energy is released than is required to break bonds in the initial reaction; heat released

Gay-Lussac's law

states that the pressure of a given mass varies directly with the temperature when volume remains constant

gamma rays

high energy radiation that has no electrical charge and no mass, is not deflected by electric or magnetic fields, usually accompanies alpha and beta radiation, and accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay

heterogenous mixture

one that does not have a uniform composition and in which the individual substances remain distinct

homogeneous mixture

one that has a uniform composition throughout and always has a single pahse; also called a solution

Hund's rule

states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital

hydrogen bond

a strong dipole dipole attraction bw molecules that contain a hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone electron pair; usually N, O, F

hydrate

a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms

ideal gas law

PV=nRT; temp in kelvin, R depends on P units

independent variable

variable that the experimenter plans to change

isotopes

atoms of the same element with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons

ionic bond

metal with a nonmetal; hard, rigid, brittle solids, high melting and boiling points, conducts electricity in the aqueous and molten states

insoluable

describes a substance that cannot be dissolved in a given solvent

immiscible

describes two liquids that can be mixed together but separate shortly after you cease mixing them

ionization energy

the energy required to remove an electrn from a gaseous atom; generally increases left to right, and decreases tope to bottom. (florine=greatest)

joule

the SI unit of heat and enegy

kinetic molecular theory

explains the properties of gases in terms of the energy, size, and motion of thier particles

law of conservation of energy

states that in any chemical or physical process, energy may change from one form to another, but it is neither created, nor destroyed

law of conservation of mass

in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved; mass can be neither created nor destroyed

law of conservation of charge

states that charge can be transferred from one object to another but cannot be created or destroyed

Lewis Dot structure

a model that uses electron dot structures to show how electrons are arranged in molecules; lines represent bonding pairs

limiting reactant

reactant that is totally consumed during a chemical reaction, limits the exten of the reaction and dtermines the amount of product

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

mixture

a physical blend of two or more pure substances in any proportion in which each

molecule

forms when two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in potential energy than its constituent atoms

mass number

the number after the elements name, representing the sum of its protons and neutrons

metal

left side of periodic table; good conductor of heat and electricity, ductile, malleable, generall shiny

metalloid

an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals; found along the steps lines on periodic table

miscible

describes two liquids that are soluable in each other

metallic bond

the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons

molecular formula

a formula that specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule or formula unit of the substance; done after empirical formula

empirical formula

percent to mass, mass to mole, divide by small, multiply till whole

heat of fusion

the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid substance; 334j/g; Q=mHf

heat of vaporization

the amount of heat required to evaporate one mole of a liquid; 2260j/g; Q=mHv

molarity

the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution; moles of solute/liters of solution

molar mass

the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance

molar volume

for a gas, the volume that one mole occupies; 22.4 at one mole

mole

the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance

neutron

a neutral subatomic particle in an atoms nucleus that has a mass nearly equal to that of a proton

group

the vertical column of elements in the periodic table

fission

the splitting of a nucleus into smaller, more stable fragments

fusion

the process of binding smaller atomic nuclei into a single larger and more stable nucleus

noble gas configuration

electron configuration in which you incorporate the noble gas to replace a group of configurations

neutralization reaction

a reaction in which an acid and base react in aqueous solution to produce a salt and water

nonmetal

elements on the right side of periodic table; generally dull gases, brittle solids, and poor conductors of heat and electricity

octet rule

states that atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

oxidation number

the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ion

Pauli exclusion principle

states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins

percent yield

the ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield expressed as a %; actual/theoretical x 100

percent error

the ratio of an error to an accepted value

pH

the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; 1-14; 7 is neutral; 0-6=acid; 8-14=base

period

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

physical change

a type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition

physical property

A characteristic of a matter that can be observed without changing the samples composition; ex. density, color, taste, etc

photon

a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy

polar covalent

a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally

precipitate

a solid produced during a chemical reactin in a solution

precision

refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another; precise measurements show little variation over a series of trials but may not be accurate

product

a substance formed during a chemical reaction

proton

a subatomic particle in an atoms nucleus with a positive charge a 1+

reactant

the starting substance in a chemical reaction

excess reactant

a reactant that remains after a chemical reactant starts

saturated

contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a give amount of solvent at a specific temp and pressure

single replacement reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

solute

a substance dissolved in a solution

soluble

describes a substance that can be dissolved in a give solvent

solvent

the substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution

solution

a uniform mixture that may contain solids, liquids, or gases

strong acid

an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution

strong base

a base that dissociates entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

sublimation

solid changes to directly to a gas w/o becoming liquid first

supersaturated

contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperatrue

synthesis reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more substances react to yield a single product

temperature

a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter

theoretical yield

the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant

unsaturated solution

contains less dissolved solute for a given temp and pressure than a saturated solution

valence electrons

the electrons in an atoms outermost orbitals; determines the elements chem properties

wavelength

the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continous wave

weak acid

an acid that ionizes only partially in dilute aqueous solution

weak base

a base that ionizaes only partially in dilute aqueous solution to form the conjugate acid of the base and hydroxide ion

actual yield

the amount of product actully produced when a chemical reaction is carried out in an experiment

heat

a form of energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler object

Q=mCpT

the formula to determine heat

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