at the same temperature, more massive particles move _____ than less massive particles
states that the higher input of energy, the faster the particles that make up a substance move
the process of freezing, condensation and deposition require that the particles ______ energy
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that matter cannot be created or destroyed
a mixture of positive ions and free electrons
Law of Conservation of Energy
states that the total amount of energy in a system is constant
particles in a(n) _____ state of matter have less energy than liquids
the change of a substance from a solid to a gas
the change of a substance from a solid to a liquid
the change of a substance from a liquid to a solid
the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
the change of a substance from a gas to a solid
the change of a substance from a gas to a liquid
the process of melting, evaporation and sublimation require that the particles _____ energy
a building block of matter
a mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out
a mixture in which particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out
a substance formed when atoms of two or more elements join together
the smallest particle of a compound that still has all the properties of that compound
matter that has only one kind of atom
a mixture that appears to be a single substance but is composed of particles of two or more substances that are distributed evenly amongst each other
a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
a substance in which there is only one type of particle
when one substance can be dissolved in another (like sugar in water)
the substance being dissolved
when one substance cannot be dissolved in another (like oil in water)
the substance that is doing the dissolving
a solid solution of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals
the subatomic particles involved in forming chemical bonds
a particle in the nucleus that has no charge
atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
a negatively charged particle in an atom
the central part of an atom
equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
a positively charged atom in the nucleus of an atom
the region outside of the nucleus where electrons are likely to be found
an abbreviation for an element name
a picture, an idea, or an object that is built to explain how something else looks or works
a column on the periodic table
having a regular, repeating pattern
a row on the periodic table
when an atom is capable of taking, giving, or sharing electrons to form a chemical bond with another atom
says that the chemical and physical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
a family of unreactive elements
the set of transition metals that are shiny and found in the first row of the periodic table
set of metals found in groups 3-12
family that tends to lose one valence electron
the set of transition metals that are radioactive
family that tends to gain one valence electron
Alkaline Earth Metals
family that has two valence electrons
left of the zig-zag line
where would you find the metals?
B, Si, As, Te, Sb, Ge
the chemical symbols of the 6 metalloids
what family has 5 valence electrons?
in what group is Arsenic found?
in what period is Helium found?
in what period is Neptunium found?
how many valence electrons does Helium have?
how many valence electrons does Aluminum have?
arranged the periodic table by increasing atomic mass
arranged the periodic table by increasing atomic number
force responsible for the attraction between subatomic particles (ex. protons are attracted to neutrons)
force that holds the electrons in place around the nucleus
what is the mass of a neutron?
what is the mass of an electron?
how many electrons can be held in the 1st energy level?
how many electrons can be held in the 2nd energy level?
how many electrons can be held in the 3rd energy level?
Atom A has 5 protons and 6 neutrons. Atom B has 5 protons and 5 neutrons. What are atoms A and B called?
What is one way to increase the speed at which a substance dissolves?
sift the sand out
How would you seperate sand from water?
let the water evaporate
how would you seperate sugar from water?
elements and compounds
the two types of pure substances
colloids, suspensions and solutions
the three types of mixtures
An atom is mostly empty space with a dense, positively charged nucleus.
Atoms are divisible (made up of subatomic particles).
Electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, like planets circle the sun.
An atom is made up of a positively charged pudding-like material, throughout which electrons can be found.
An atom has a nucleus surrounded by a large region, where the most likely location for an electron can be found.
Matter cannot be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever. Eventually the smallest piece, called an atom, will be reached.
All elements are composed of atoms, which cannot be created, destroyed, or divided.
In an atom, electrons are located in energy levels that are a certain distance away from the nucleus.
Atoms are always moving and are capable of joining together.
Atoms of the same element are exactly alike, and atoms of different elements are different.
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
consists of two atoms of the same element covalently bonded together
charged particles that form during chemical changes when one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another
a repeating three-dimensional pattern of ions
an ion made of two or more atoms that are covalently bonded together that act like a single ion
the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
a force of attraction that holds two or more atoms together
the force of attraction between the nuclei of atoms and the electrons shared by the atoms
the joining of atoms to form new substances
the force of attraction between a positively charged metal ion and the electrons in a metal
a representation where the chemical symbol represents the nucleus and a series of dots represents the valence electrons
the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
an element that is capable of covalently bonding two of that same element's atoms together in a molecule
a substance that ionizes in water to produce (H+) ions
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
a substance whose water solution conducts an electric current
a compound formed from the positive ion of a base and the negative ion of an acid
a reaction in which an acid combines with a base to form salt and water
a substance that ionizes to produce (OH-) ions
a substance that changes colors in acids and bases
a substance that is changed in a chemical reaction
a reaction in which elements combine to form a compound
a reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more simple substances
a statement that uses symbols, formulas and numbers to stand for a chemical reaction
double replacement reaction
a reaction in which the elements in two compounds are exchanged
a substance that is formed in a chemical reaction
a chemical change in which elements are combined or rearranged
single replacement reaction
a reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound
a number placed to the right of a chemical symbol that tells how many atoms of an element are present
a protein that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction (biological catalyst)
a reaction in which energy is absorbed
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
a substance that changes the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed
a number placed before a chemical formula in a chemical equation that tells how many molecules of a compound are present
a substance that slows down a chemical reaction
a reaction in which energy is released
N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, At
what are the 7 diatomic ions?
do metals tend to lose or gain electrons?
do nonmetals tend to lose or gain electrons?
what type of ion (positive or negative) do metals form?
what type of ion (positive or negative) do nonmetals form?
what type of compound would have a high melting point and would be solid, brittle and hard?
when electrons are free to move from one atom to the next, what type of bond are they most likely involved in?
transferred electrons are associated with which type of bond?
shared electrons are associated with which type of bond?
what charge would an atom have if it lost 3 electrons?
what charge would an atom have if it gained 2 electrons?
what charge does a fluorine ion have?
what charge does an aluminum ion have?
what charge does a magnesium ion have?
what charge does an oxygen ion have?
what color would pH paper turn in soap?
what color would pH paper turn in water?
what color would pH paper turn in lemon juice?
what color would a solution of ammonia turn litmus paper?
what color would a solution of window cleaner turn litmus paper?
what color would a solution of pop turn litmus paper?
which part of the chemical formula will tell you that the compound is a base?
which part of the chemical formula will tell you that the compound is an acid?
acid and base
reactants of a neutralization reaction
salt and water
products of a neutralization reaction
is milk an acid or a base?
is milk of magnesia an acid or a base?
which pH would be associated with a weak base (1, 5, 9, 14)?
which pH would be associated with a strong acid (1, 5, 9, 14)?
the energy source for electrolysis
type of reaction electrolysis is used for
a solid that settles to the bottom of a mixture
left of the arrow
where are reactants found in a chemical equation/
the opposite of a synthesis reaction