William Tecumseh Sherman
Union General who destroyed South during "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, example of total war
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville. (1824-1863)
Robert E Lee
The Most famous and successful confederate general. He led the confederates in the seven day battles. Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg with victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
Ulysses S. Grant
Led the Union army to victory capturing Richmond. He led the Battles of Shiloh and Gettysburg and had Lee surrender at the Appomattox. Elected president in 1868. Passed the 15th amendment (1870 allowing all to vote)
President during Civil War and supported the Union Army. Put the Emancipation Proclomation into effect in 1863. Assassinated in 1865
Democrat. Became President after Lincoln's death. Struggled with congress and aristocracy in South. Strongly supported state's rights, wanted fast reconstruction
Important general for the Union Army of the Potomac. Important in Battle of Antietam, very hesitant style, butted heads with Lincoln,
Senator Benjamin Wade
Chairman of the committee on territories. Active Abolitionist and advocate for African American participation in the war. Opposed to Lincoln reconstruction plan with Wade-Davis Bill (more strict method) that was vetoed by Lincoln
MA politician, wanted abolition, wanted to avoid compromise with confederates, was attacked and caned by Preston Brooks during a senate meeting
William Pitt Fessenden
Secretary of the treasury under lincoln. A member of the Whig party. Head of moderate republicans
Radical Republican; wanted to re write southern society in the image of the North during reconstruction
Union Army captain; writer of To the Freed people of Orangeburg (1865). during reconstruction, sent to south to help former slaves adapt to new conditions
John D. Rockerfeller
Owner standard oil company
Alfred Thayer Mahan
A navy captain and admiral who created the theory of navalism. Nations are seafaring powers that relied on trade for wealth and power. The only way to protect foreign markets is with battleships operating far from America. Congress launched to rebuild navy and grew to be the third largest by 1900
William Henry Seward
secretary of state under Lincoln and Johnson. The idea that a commercial empire could be gained by demanding equal access to foreign markets. America must pursue trade in west. promoted railroad and canal across Central America. Ideas successful after death
James G. Blaine
Secretary of state, began to look for ways to expand American trade and influence southward into Central and South America. Campaigned to cancel the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, which shared rights with GB to any canal built in central america. Tried to shift imports to central America from Britain to the US by proposing a pan-American Union to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers
President Grover Cleveland
Intervened between Britain and Venezuela on Gold Issue, part of industrial transformation. Supported Gold Standard. Vetoed many bills.
Secretary of state, in 1899 encouraged China to open doors to other countries (lead to Boxer Rebellion). Also saw Paunceforte treaty to cede british interest in building a canal across the Central American isthmus and required the US to leave such a canal open to ships of all nations.
President 1901-1909. Former colonel, fought in Spanish American War, wanted to recognize Cuban independence.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Wanted to recognize cuban independence, chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, Hated president Wilson, Against League of Nations, wrote a 14 amendments to 14 points, stated that US had no responsibility to help other countries in League of Nations (1918)
25th president, initially did not want war with spain but told spain to light up on Cuban rebels. Dispatched a battleship "Maine" to show protection for Cubans, which blew up. Recognized Cuban independence and insisted on with drawl of Spanish. Ordered 11,000 troops after Dewey's success (1898)
Enrique Dupuy de Lome
Spanish minister, sent letter to Cuba and US state department admitting that Spain had no intention of changing policy in Cuba, and that they would attack Rebels. Spain had decieved US.
An admiral who ordered his Asiatic battle squad from China to Philippines, attacked Spanish ships on Manila Bay. 381 Spanish died to 1 American but didn't have land forces to invade so US sent 11,000 troops. (1898)
Tried to protect democracy with 14 points. Created League of Nations, played role in Treaty of Versailles. Against Big trusts, put in graduated income tax, known for New Nationalism (more government support of labor laws)
War Industries Board, Coordinated production through networks of industrial and trade associations. Relied on persuasion through publicity and contracts that guaranteed profit and covered all costs. Advised both Wilson and FDR. Helped triple production in US during WWI
Creator of the Ford Automobile company, first to use assembly lines, made cars affordable, changed culture (materialism of Car)
Administrator of the food administration, huge campaign to promote health eating and to help farmers. President (1929-1933) promoted trade associations and cooperation between business and gov't. Tried to save banks during depression, created RFC to lend money to banks, drew criticism for helping banks not people. Failed to solve WWII problems.
Leader of the Committee of Public Informationto boost American commitment to the war.
Eugene V. Debs
Arrested for attacking the draft, socialist candidate in 1912 election.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Judge of the supreme court who was against Social activists. Wrote that "free speech has limits"
Charles Evans Hughes and Warren Harding
denounced expelling socialist candidates. promoted free speech and constitutional rights
1868: worked for New York Brokerage house and after becoming one of the richest men in the country retired and became inventor, 1876 invented "Edison Electric Light Company"
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Major player in iron industry, 1872 brought the Bessemer Process to America (fast steel), expanded business horizontally and vertically, worth 40 million in 1900
John D. Rockerfeller
Major player in oil industry, expanded vertically and horizontally, used illegal means to run business, in 1870 created the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, created first Trust in 1882
Banker who bought out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Promoted selling and consolidating
Created the first Union in 1881 (Cigar Makers), leader of the American Federation of Labor, preached accommodation not resistance; accepted capitalism and wages by 1901 AFL had largest number of members in any Union.
President 1901-1909, promoted strong executive power, supported big business as long as it was regulated by big government. Used Interstate Commerce Clause allowed government to interfere with business between states, countries, and Native Americans. Promoted environmental conservation and preservation
President 1909-1913, promoted environmental protection, safety standards in mines and railroads, and federal children's bureau. used "Trust Busting" to regulate business. Forced TR out of party.
crime reporter and photographer during the 1890s. wrote "How the other half lives", a book that showed poverty and crime in America
Author of "The Jungle", a 1906 book that exposed the atrocities within the meat-packing industries, which in part lead to the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 as well as the Meat Inspection Act
Led the American Birth control league. Her crusades had begun as an attempt to save women from unwanted pregnancy, accepted by the middle-class in the 1920s
pilot if a winged monoplane called "Spirit of St. Louis". and headed east. Landed outside of Paris and was the first pilot to cross Atlantic Alone
Heroic member of the era of consumption, seen as a bad boy. Smoked, drank, cursed and chased every girl in sight. Became highest paid player in the game and endorsed many products
Created, "white Jazz", when his style was denounces he stated that Jazz was the folk music of the machine age
captures the mentality of the WWI veteran. Wrote novels where resolution came as in war, by death. Speaker for his generation "the lost generation"
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Glorified youth and romantic individualism that lead to no redemption. Saw life as a self absorbed tragedy, wrote a lot about materialism
black nationalist from Jamaica. Wanted to return blacks to Africa with his organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association. (1916). Urged separation, but in 1935 was convicted of mail fraud and sent to prison for overselling stocks in his steamship company that returned African Americans to Africa
Vibrant muralist who fused geometric designs with African myth and everyday African American life and religion
Poet, short story writer, wrote about the ancient heritage of African Americans, promoted black pride
John T. Scopes
Arrested for teaching evolution in 1925. Trial became "duel to the death" between christians and evolution believers. The presiding judge ruled that scientists could not be used to defend evolution. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100
Warren G. Harding
President 1920-1923. in 1921 created a new Bureau of Budget, which brought modern accounting techniques to the management of federal revenues. Toward the end of his administration he cleared a scandal from the Bureau.
President 1923-1929. Worshipped wealth, thought of factories as temples. Prosecuted wrongdoers in business, and restored confidence to public.
Huey P. Long
Rose to power on a wave of rural discontent against banks, corporations, and machine politics. As governor of Louisiana pushed reforms regulating utilities, and the building of roads. Promoted a limit to and the redistribution of wealth