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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. reinforcement
  2. unconditioned response (UCR)
  3. acquisition
  4. shaping
  5. continuous reinforcement
  1. a in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
  2. b reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
  3. c the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  4. d an operant conditioing procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximation of a desired goal
  5. e in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a mental representation of the layout of one's evnironment. for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
  2. a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
  3. an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
  4. in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
  5. reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

5 True/False questions

  1. generalizationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus


  2. respondent behaviorbehavior that opertes on the environment, producing consequences.


  3. classical conditioninga type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stiumlus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticaipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus (also called Pavlovian conditioning)


  4. overjustification effectthe effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. the person ma now see the reward, rather than the intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performint the task


  5. operant chamber ("skinner box")a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. used in operant conditioning research


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