ACE EOES Study Guide Ch. 4

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Nutrition

What is the major difference between Recommended Dietary Allowances and Dietary Reference Intakes?

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What is the major difference between Estimated Average Requirement and Tolerable Upper Intake Level?

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What is the major difference between Complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates?

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What is the major difference between Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids?

...

What is the major difference between complete protein and incomplete protein?

...

What vitamin helps release energy from fats and vegetables?

Pantothenic acid

What vitamin aids in cell development, function of the nervous system, and the metabolism of protein and fat?

Vitamin B12

What vitamin protects blood cells, body tissues and essential fatty acids from destruction in the body?

Vitamin E

What vitamin is essential for blood-clotting functions?

Vitamin K

What vitamin supports formation and maintenance of skin, hair and mucous membranes?

Carotene

What vitamin is essential for liver function?

Choline

What vitamin helps the body release energy from carbohydrates during metabolism?

Thiamine

What vitamin aids in bone and tooth formation?

Vitamin D

Is Fructose a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Monosaccharide

Is glycogen a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Polysaccharide...

Is brown sugar a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Disaccharide

Is starch a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Polysaccharide

Is galactose a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Monosaccharide

are whole grains a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Disaccharide

Is lactose a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Disaccharide

Is glucose a monosaccharide (MS), disaccharide (DS) or polysaccharide (PS)?

Monosaccharide

_______ is the result of the binding together of glucose and fructose.

Sucrose

Saturated fat increases levels of ________, which is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol.

LDL - Low density lipoprotein

Essential fatty acids are used to make _____, which are oxygenated fatty acids that the body uses to signal cellular responses.

Eicosanoids

Proteins are essential for the manufacture of _________, which the body uses to fight infection.

Antibodies

______ is the condition resulting from the ingestion of excessive amounts of fluids.

Hyponatremia

The degree to which a mineral can be absorbed by the body is called its __________.

Bioavailability

What mineral is important in the development of the reproductive system and aids in healing?

Zinc

What mineral is a component of thyroxine, which controls metabolism?

Iodine

What mineral is essential for strong bones, teeth, and muscle tissue and helps regulate the heart beat?

Calcium

What mineral protects body tissue from oxidative damage?

Selenium

What mineral stimulates bone formation and inhibits or reverses dental caries?

Fluoride

What mineral maintains acid/alkaline balance and aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, minerals and glucose?

Magnesium

What mineral is important for hemoglobin formation and improves blood quality?

Iron

What mineral is involved in glucose metabolism and may increase the effectiveness of insulin?

Chromium

What three vitamins do not have to consumed through food? How are they manufactured by the body?

Vitamin K and Biotin, they are produced by normal intestinal flora.
Vitamin D - Produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight

How many calories per gram are provided by carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram

How many calories per gram are provided by fat?

fats provide 9 calories per gram

How many calories per gram are provided by protein?

Protein provides 4 calories per gram

How many calories per gram are provided by alcohol?

Alcohol provides 7 calories per gram

What are the key topic areas covered in the 2005 dietary guidelines for americans?

1. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs
2. Weight management
3. Physical activity
4. Food groups to encourage
5. fats
6. Carbohydrates
7. Sodium and potassium
8. Alcoholic beverages
9. Food safety

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