refers to any thought, feeling, or behavior that departs from accepted practices in a society or group
widely held beliefs in society
less-serious rules of behavior in a group or society
Symbolic Interactionist Approaches of Deviance
The interactionistapproach to deviance views it as a manifestation of social interactions, like any other thought, feeling, or behavior- labeling theory
Ethnomethodology coined by
•Harold Garfinkel(1917 -2011)
Ethnomethodology and sociology
•EM: Not interested in those things, except to understand how a sense of those structures are created in everyday life.
sociology and ethno
Sociology: bureaucracy, capitalism, the division of labor, social systems, culture
Ethnomethodologist and social order
assume that social order is illusory.
•Social life merely appears to be orderly; in reality it is potentially chaotic.
•Social order is constructed in the minds of social actors as society confronts the individual as a series of sense impressions and experiences
-We must somehow organize into a coherent pattern.
•More simply: EM is the study of the ways in which people make sense of their social world.
Seeks to discover the "methods" that persons use in their everyday life in constructing social reality
•Arduously Empirical; Often atheoretical
•Discovery of "essential features"
-To uncover what is generally true and not limited to culturally or temporally relative conclusions
-Goal: to find essences of the human condition which are universally true
assumptions of ethno-
ethnomethodologists assume that order in the social world is an accomplishment, not a given;
-order in the social world is emergent;
-individuals constantly shape and (re)create it through their interactions with others.
Method of Ethno-
one of the most important forms of interaction is conversation, thus conversation analysisis important for ethnomethodology
•Study of talk in interaction
The process through which immediately given information (documents) are used to infer meaning and motive in the behavior of others.
-appearance, reputation, past events, actual documents
selecting certain facts from a social situation, which seem to conform to a pattern and then making sense of these facts in terms of the pattern.
people make sense of a remark, sign or particular action by reference to the context in which it occurs; that is they index it to particular circumstances.
The taken-for-granted world we all inhabit is to some extent necessary in order to avoid confusion which would be experienced if we saw everything as if it were the first time.
Disrupt temporarily the world which people take for granted and see how they react.
-Deviate from normative expectations (Deviance!)
point of breaching expierements
The point of this is to expose background assumptions that have been accepted as reality for a long time.
argues that deviance is a consequence of a social process in which a negative characteristic becomes an element of an individual's identity
-An individual becomes a deviant through the acceptance of a deviant label
Types of Deviance coined by
Tannenbaum's(1938) early research focused on the process by which juvenile delinquents are "tagged" as deviants
•Edwin Lemertextended Tannenbaum'swork by arguing that there
refers to the initial act that causes others to label the individual a deviant
occurs after an individual accepts the deviant label and continues to commit deviant acts, thus supporting the initial label
Agents of social control
represent the state's attempts to maintain social order, to enforce the moresof society;
Moral Careers and Deviant Subcultures
Lives a deviant lifestyle
moral careers coined by
Howard Becker (1973) elaborated the processes through which people become outsiders:
-An individual commits a deviant act (primary deviance)
-The person begins to accept the deviant status (secondary deviance)
-The deviant joins a deviant subculture
stigma coined by
Presentation of self is important
: an attribute, behavior, or reputation which is socially discrediting in a particular way
Physical deformities or other deviations
Affiliation with a specific nationality, religion, race, or other marginalized group that constitutes a deviation from the normative
Known deviations in personal traits
Other socially undesirable "character flaws" (culturally relative): Mental disorders, addictions, sexually promiscuous (double-standard)
Attempt to hide stigmatized characteristic
-Only possible when stigma can be obscured
downplaying stigma to reduce tensions to "normals"
"Being Middle Eastern..." (Marvasti2009)
Being "Middle Eastern-looking" as a stigma.
-How do people manage in the face of discrimination
Retrospective Interpretations: Narratives are subject to participants' interpretations
Narratives are subject to participants' interpretations
Accounting Practices (presented)
Social Structure and Deviant Behavior
Deviant behavior may be a choice but those choices are made in context of a larger set of factors
-Choices are constrained by the information and resources we have available to cope with our situation
-Larger societal norms create limitations on how we can achieve legitimate goals in life
Anomie coined by
Durkheim argued that individuals can lose their sense of place in society, especially in times of great social change when norms and values become less clear
•Under these conditions, individuals may develop a sense of anomie
-"normlessness," where there is little consensus about what is right and wrong
•Without a clear sense of right and wrong, individuals lack the guidance to make clear decisions in life
Social Strain Theory coined by
social strain theory-
Deviance is a function of imbalance between socially acceptable goals and the legitimate means of reaching them.
social control theory,
deviance results when individuals' bonds with conventional society are weakened in some way
-Related to the proximity principle
Four ways that individuals are bonded to society:
Four ways that individuals are bonded to society: