A-C Life science vocabulary

105 terms by judgegavel 

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105 cards

abdomen

hind section of an arthropod's body that contains its reproductive organs and part of its digestive trait

abiotic factor

nonliving part of an organism's habitat

absorption

process by which nutrients pass from the digestive system into the blood

active immunity

immunity that occurs when a person's own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen

active transport

movements of materials through a cell membrane using energy

adaptation

behavior or physical characteristic that allows an organism to survive or reproduce in its environment

addiction

physical dependance on a substance

adolescence

the stage of development between childhood and adulthood when children become adults and physically

aggression

threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another

AIDS

(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system

alcoholism

a disease in which a person is both physically addicted to and emotionally dependent on alcohol

algae

plantlike protists

alleles

different forms of a gene

allergen

substance that causes an allergy

allergy

disorder in which the immune system is overly sensitive to a foreign substance

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

amino acid

a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins

amniotic egg

egg with a shell and internal membranes that keep the embryo moist

amphibian

ectothermic vertebrate that spends its early life in water and its adult life on land

anabolic steroids

synthetic chemicals that are similar to hormones produced in the body

angiosperm

flowering plant that produces seeds enclosed in a protective structure

annual

flowering plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season

antenna

an appendage on the head of an arthropod that contains sense organs

antibiotic

chemical that kills bacteria or slows their growth without harming body cells

antibody

protein produced by a B cell of the immune system that destroys pathogens

antigen

molecule that the immune system recognizes either as a part of the body or as coming from outside the body

anus

muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body

aorta

largest artery in the body

aquaculture

practice of raising fish and other water dwelling organisms for food

arachnid

arthropod with two body sections four pair of legs and no antennae

artery

blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

arthropod

invertebrate that has an external skeleton, a segmented body and jointed appendages

asexual reproduction

reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent

asthma

disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly

atherosclerosis

condition in which an artery wall thickens from a buildup of fatty materials

atrium

each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives blood that comes into the heart

autonomic nervous system

the group of nerves in the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary actions

autotroph

organism that makes its own food

auxin

plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells

axon

threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body

B cell

lymphocyte that produces proteins that help destroy pathogens

bacteria

single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

behavior

all the actions an animal performs

biennial

flowering plant that completes its life cycle in two years

bilateral symmetry

body plan with two halves that are mirror images

bile

substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles

binary fission

form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells

binomial nomenclature

system for naming organisms in which each organism is given a unique two part scientific name

biodiversity

number of different species in an area

biogeography

study of where organisms live

bilogical control

natural predator or disease used to combat a pest insect

biome

group of land ecosystems with similiar climates and organisms

biotic factor

a living part of an organisms habitat

bird

endothermic vertebrate that has feathers and a four chambered heart and lays eggs

birth rate

number of births in a population in a certain amount of time

bivalve

mollusk that has two shells held together by hinges and strong muscles

blood pressure

pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels

brain

part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull and controls most functions in the body

brain stem

part of the brain that lies between the cerebellum and spinal cord and controls the body's involuntary actions

branching tree

diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related

bronchi

passages that direct air into the lungs

bronchitis

irritation of the breathing passages in which the small passages become narrower than normal an may be clogged with mucus

budding

form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent

calorie

amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius

cambium

layer of cells in a plant that produces new phloem and xylem cells

cancer

disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably

canopy

leafy roof formed by tall trees

capillary

tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells

captive breeding

mating of animals in zoos or wildlife preserves

carbohydrate

energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon hydrogen and oxygen

carbon monoxide

colorless odorless gas produced when substances including tobacco are burned

carcinogen

substance or factor in the environment that can cause cancer

cardiac muscle

muscle tissue found only in the heart

cardiovascular system

the body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; circulatory system

carnivore

consumer that eats only animals

carrier

person who has on recessive allele for a trait but does not have the trait

carrying capacity

largest population that an area can support

cartilage

connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together

cast

type of fossil that forms when a mold becomes filled in with minerals then hardens

cell

basic unit of structure and function in living things

cell cycle

regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo

cell membrane

outside cell boundary that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell

cell theory

widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things

cell wall

rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms

central nervous system

division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

cephalopod

ocean dwelling mollusk whose foot is adapted as tentacles that surround its mouth

cerebrum

part of the brain that interprets input from the senses, controls movement, and carries out complex mental processes

chlorophyll

green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant, algae, and some bacteria

chloroplast

structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food

chordate

phylum whose members have a notochord, a nerve cord, and slits in their throat area at some point in their lives

chromosome

double rod of condensed chromatin

cilia

hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner

circadian rhythm

behavior cycle that occurs over a period of approximately one day

classification

process of grouping things based on their similarities

clear-cutting

process of cutting down all the trees in an area at once

climate

typical weather pattern in an area over long period of time

clone

organism that is identical to the organism from which it was produced

closed circulatory system

circulatory system in which blood moves only within a connected network of tubes called blood vessels

cnidarian

invertebrate animal that uses stinging cells to capture food and defend itself

cochlea

snail-shaped tube in the inner ear that is lined with receptor cells that respond to sound

codominance

condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive

colony

group of individual organisms living or growing together

commensalism

relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

communicating

process of sharing ideas

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