When independent clauses are joined with a coordinating conjunction
I like American history, But I never can memorize dates
For And Nor But Or Yet So
a group of words containing a subject and a verb
a clasue that is a complet sentence by itself
joining words (FANBOYS)
When dependent/introductory clauses precede independent clauses
If you complete your work before five o'clock, you may leave.
a clause that is not a complet sentence by itself becaseu it gegins with a subordinating word (when, after, if, since, etc)
After Introductory words or expressions (adverbs or transitions)
Nevertheless, her hours are flexible.
After an introductory phrase which is four words or longer (do not use a comma if the introductory phrase is followed by a verbis four words or longs
In a manner of speaking, we all threw in the towel.
To set off non-restrictive elements (Apositives)
It is my opinion, therefore, that you should take the job.
a word, phrase, or clause which can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence
To separate items in a series of three or more
For his birthday he received a shirt, a tie, and a pair of pants.
To separate consecutive adjectives preceding and modifying the same noun
Enclosed is a stamped, self-addressed envelope
To set off expressions that designate the source of a quotation (dont use if quoted question or exclimation is followed by explanatory words, or if quatation is introduced by "that")
"Tell me, Mary, "asked her mother, "did you have a good time?"
To set off words used in direct address
I do not think, Tome, that your dad likes me
To set off dates, addresses, and titles (do not use with dates consisting of only the month and the year)
On Saturday, December 23, 1946, in a little church at 421 May Street, Mayfield, Illinois, Sarah and James were married.