polish astronomer who created the heliocentric theory. wrote a book on his findings called "on the revolutions of the heavenly bodies". set foundation for other scientists to make discoveries in.
English statesman and writer who created a system that eventually became the scientific method. believed everything should be proved through experimentation. people now found out answers for themselves
theory that stated the sun is the center of the universe, not the earth.
earlier theory that states that the earth is the center of the universe.
italian scientist who built a telescope in 1609. wrote a book about his ovservations called starry messenger. found sun spots and rough surfaces on the moon- proves the heavenly bodies are not perfect. Renounces his discoveries later when oppressed by church.
german astronomer who concluded planets revolved around the sun a in oval shape. did not do his own observations but studied the work of a danish astronomer tycho brahe. continued to prove that copernicus was correct
french scientist who discovered analytical geometry, linking geometry with algebra. believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. knew that he was alive and everything else he did not know was true. combined ideas with francis bacon.
english scientist wo created law of universal gravitation. stated all phyusical objects were affected equally by the same forces. this force ruled motiuon of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. introducted the idea of gravity
created the vaccine for small pox. used inoculation, injecting a small part of the germ into a person's body so as to create an immunity to the disease.
founded modern chemistry. came up with boyle's law. explaining how volume, temperature and pressureof gas affect each other.
believed that all people are greedy and selfish. believed people act on their self interest. people give up their rights for productiv society. believed that rulers needed absolute power to keep citizens under control. wrote book called leviation
order in society/ no civil war (revolts crushed)/ decisions made quickly
benefits of Hobbes ideas
ruler will be selfish and interested in self/ may have a poor ruler/ bad decisions can be made/ no sharing of ideas
problems of hobbe's ideas.
believed people learn from experiences and can improve themselves. people should make their own government and all people are born free and equal. The rights of people include life, liberty and property. If a government does not protect the rights of the people than they can get rid of it.
government was a democracy (people have a voice)/ focused on individual rights/ people have right to get rid of their governement
benefits of Locke's ideas
could have disorder/ if too much unhappiness, could have wars and revolts/ slow decisions/ too many freedoms
problems with locke's ideas.
great political and social thinkers that met in Paris to share ideas.
reason/ nature/ happiness/ progress/ liberty
five concepts followed by philosophs.
philosophe who believed in tolerance, religious freedom, freedom of speech, and reason. wrote in satires to make fun of the wealthy, churchj and government. also wrote about clegy, government and aristocracy. firmly believed that people should have right to say their beliefs
french writer who introduced the idea of separation of powers. wrote a book called "on the spirit of laws
a form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly
french philosophe who believed in individual freedom. believed that civilization corrupts people as people are innately good and should self-govern. wrote the social contract. men were equal so titles should be abolished
a democracy where people give up some freedoms in favor of the common good and people have a direct say in government.
italian philosophe who believed laws existed to preserve social order. a person should recieve a speedy trial and torture should NEVER be used. the degree of punishment should be the degree of crime. no capital punishment
woman who believed that women should have the same rights as men THey would never be equal until they are allowed to have the education. Women should enter fields of medicine and politics.
german philosophe who believed people do not learn from experience alone. proof was in the existence of one's conscience. believed that you cannot apply reason to God.
belief in proress/ more secular outlook/ importance of individual/
legacy of the enlightenment
social gatherings where philosophers, writers, and thinkers would meet and discuss ideas
the creator of the idea of the encyclopedia- compiled essays and put them in a book.
style in 1600s and 1700s, including a grand ornate design. dominated by dramatic organ and choral music
style of simple, elegance that borrowed ideas from classical greece and rome. new lighter, elegant style of music.
musician who changed musical composition. broke from traditionally ornate musical forms and developed sonata and symphony.
musican who changed the composition of operas. set new standard or elegance and originality with his varied and numerous muscial composition. brought classical music to its peak.
musican who exhibited great range in his works. Moved from the classical style of mozart to being new trend that carried music to Romanticism. He had a wide range of musical talent.
a lengthy works of prose fiction that has plot, suspense, and chracterization and were popular among middle class.
english novelist wrote the first true english novel, pamela.
an absolute monarch who reflected enlightenment ideals of reform and reason. still did not want to give up power
frederick the great
king of prussia who committed himself to the goal of reforming and strenghtening his country. granted many religious freedoms and reduced censorships. improved education, the justice system and abolished torture.
king of austria who was the most radical royal reformer by aboishing serfdom and initiating legal reforms. introduced freedom of press and of religion
catherine the great
ruler of russia who tried to modernize and reform russia according to the writings of philosophes. wanted religious tolerance and abolished torture. gave nobles power over the serfs and vastly enlarged the russian empire includeing expansion westward into poland