The Age of Enlightenment

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Copernicus

polish astronomer who created the heliocentric theory. wrote a book on his findings called "on the revolutions of the heavenly bodies". set foundation for other scientists to make discoveries in.

Francis Bacon

English statesman and writer who created a system that eventually became the scientific method. believed everything should be proved through experimentation. people now found out answers for themselves

heliocentric theory

theory that stated the sun is the center of the universe, not the earth.

geocentric theory

earlier theory that states that the earth is the center of the universe.

Galileo Galilei

italian scientist who built a telescope in 1609. wrote a book about his ovservations called starry messenger. found sun spots and rough surfaces on the moon- proves the heavenly bodies are not perfect. Renounces his discoveries later when oppressed by church.

johannes kepler

german astronomer who concluded planets revolved around the sun a in oval shape. did not do his own observations but studied the work of a danish astronomer tycho brahe. continued to prove that copernicus was correct

rene descartes

french scientist who discovered analytical geometry, linking geometry with algebra. believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. knew that he was alive and everything else he did not know was true. combined ideas with francis bacon.

issac newton

english scientist wo created law of universal gravitation. stated all phyusical objects were affected equally by the same forces. this force ruled motiuon of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. introducted the idea of gravity

Edward jenner

created the vaccine for small pox. used inoculation, injecting a small part of the germ into a person's body so as to create an immunity to the disease.

robert boyle

founded modern chemistry. came up with boyle's law. explaining how volume, temperature and pressureof gas affect each other.

thomas hobbes

believed that all people are greedy and selfish. believed people act on their self interest. people give up their rights for productiv society. believed that rulers needed absolute power to keep citizens under control. wrote book called leviation

order in society/ no civil war (revolts crushed)/ decisions made quickly

benefits of Hobbes ideas

ruler will be selfish and interested in self/ may have a poor ruler/ bad decisions can be made/ no sharing of ideas

problems of hobbe's ideas.

John Locke

believed people learn from experiences and can improve themselves. people should make their own government and all people are born free and equal. The rights of people include life, liberty and property. If a government does not protect the rights of the people than they can get rid of it.

government was a democracy (people have a voice)/ focused on individual rights/ people have right to get rid of their governement

benefits of Locke's ideas

could have disorder/ if too much unhappiness, could have wars and revolts/ slow decisions/ too many freedoms

problems with locke's ideas.

philosophs

great political and social thinkers that met in Paris to share ideas.

reason/ nature/ happiness/ progress/ liberty

five concepts followed by philosophs.

voltaire

philosophe who believed in tolerance, religious freedom, freedom of speech, and reason. wrote in satires to make fun of the wealthy, churchj and government. also wrote about clegy, government and aristocracy. firmly believed that people should have right to say their beliefs

montesquieu

french writer who introduced the idea of separation of powers. wrote a book called "on the spirit of laws

satire

a form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly

Rousseau

french philosophe who believed in individual freedom. believed that civilization corrupts people as people are innately good and should self-govern. wrote the social contract. men were equal so titles should be abolished

direct democracy

a democracy where people give up some freedoms in favor of the common good and people have a direct say in government.

beccaria

italian philosophe who believed laws existed to preserve social order. a person should recieve a speedy trial and torture should NEVER be used. the degree of punishment should be the degree of crime. no capital punishment

wollstonecraft

woman who believed that women should have the same rights as men THey would never be equal until they are allowed to have the education. Women should enter fields of medicine and politics.

Kant

german philosophe who believed people do not learn from experience alone. proof was in the existence of one's conscience. believed that you cannot apply reason to God.

belief in proress/ more secular outlook/ importance of individual/

legacy of the enlightenment

salon

social gatherings where philosophers, writers, and thinkers would meet and discuss ideas

denis diderot

the creator of the idea of the encyclopedia- compiled essays and put them in a book.

baroque

style in 1600s and 1700s, including a grand ornate design. dominated by dramatic organ and choral music

neoclassical

style of simple, elegance that borrowed ideas from classical greece and rome. new lighter, elegant style of music.

haydn

musician who changed musical composition. broke from traditionally ornate musical forms and developed sonata and symphony.

mozart

musican who changed the composition of operas. set new standard or elegance and originality with his varied and numerous muscial composition. brought classical music to its peak.

beethoven

musican who exhibited great range in his works. Moved from the classical style of mozart to being new trend that carried music to Romanticism. He had a wide range of musical talent.

novel

a lengthy works of prose fiction that has plot, suspense, and chracterization and were popular among middle class.

samuel richardson

english novelist wrote the first true english novel, pamela.

enlightened despot

an absolute monarch who reflected enlightenment ideals of reform and reason. still did not want to give up power

frederick the great

king of prussia who committed himself to the goal of reforming and strenghtening his country. granted many religious freedoms and reduced censorships. improved education, the justice system and abolished torture.

joseph II

king of austria who was the most radical royal reformer by aboishing serfdom and initiating legal reforms. introduced freedom of press and of religion

catherine the great

ruler of russia who tried to modernize and reform russia according to the writings of philosophes. wanted religious tolerance and abolished torture. gave nobles power over the serfs and vastly enlarged the russian empire includeing expansion westward into poland

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