Requires vitamin D to upregulate transporter proteins in order to be absorbed. Responsible for the major structural components of bones and teeth. Can be found in milk, cheese, fortified bread and flour, cereals and green vegetables.
Major negative ion (as C1-) in body fluids; present in stomach secretions (as hydrocholoric acids, HC1)
Essential component of haemoglobin in red blood cells. It's absorption is greatly improved by the presence of vitamin C simultaneously to enhance conversion into an absorbable form. Absorption can be inhibited by calcium, soya protein and some consituents of vegetables. Is found in meat and offal, bread, flour, potatoes and other vegetables.
Present in bone, inside the cells and in body fluid; needed for the activity of some enzymes. Milk, bread and other cereal products as well as potatoes and other vegetables are sources of this mineral.
Present in bones and teeth; essential for energy storage and transfer by ATP. Found in milk, cheese, bread, cereals, meat and meat products.
Main positive ion inside cells; K+ also present in extracellular fluids; essential for conduction of nerve impulses, also for the maintenance of ion concentration gradients across cell membranes.
Major positive ion in extracellular fluids; Na+ also present inside cells; essential for conduction of nerve impulses and active transport of small molecules across cell membranes (e.g absorption from the gut). Main source is salt used in food processing, cooking and at the table.
Present in body proteins. Can be found in protein rich foods like meat, fish, eggs, milk, bread and cereals.
Found in all body tissues, may be involved in the regulation of blood glucose. Found in liver, cereals, beer and yeast.
Required for formation of red blood cells, this trace element can be found in liver and other meat.
Component of many enzymes; necessary for haemoglobin formation, this element can be found in gren vegetables, fish and liver.
Essential component of thyroid hormones, which can be found in milk, seafood and iodized salt.
Essential component of some enzymes which can be found in cereals, pulse and nuts.
Essential component of some enzymes, found in kidney, cereals, vegetables and fruits.
Essential component of some enzymes; associated with vitamin E activity, this can be found in cereals, meat and fish.
Essential comppnent of many enzymes and proteins andin steroid and thyroid hormone activity. Can be found in meat and meat products; milk and cheese; bread flour and cereal products.