a rare anomaly in monochorionic twins in which one twin develops without a heart and often without an upper half of the body.
severe generalized massive edema often seen with fetal hydrops
caudal regression syndrome
lack of development of the caudal spine and cord that may occur in the fetus of a diabetic mother
occurs when the division of the egg occurs after days
twins that arise from two separately fertilized ova
coma and seizures in the second and third trimester patient secondary to pregnancy-induced hypertension.
fetal death that occurs after the fetus has reached a certain growth that is too large to resorb into the uterus
fluid occurring in at least two areas: pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, ascites, or skin edema
excessive vomiting that leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)
an antigen present in the fetus; the maternal serum is tested between 15 and 22 weeks of gestation to detect abnormal levels; can also be tested directly from the amniotic fluid during amniocentesis.
maternal serum quad screen
a blood test conducted during the second trimester 15 to 22 weeks to identify pregnancies at a higher risk for chromosomal anomalies trisomny 18 or trisomy 21 and neural tube defects.
twins that arise from a single fertilized egg, which divides to produce two identical fetuses
nonimmune hydrops (NIH)
term that describes a group of conditions in which hydrops is present in the fetus but is not a result of fetomaternal blood group incompatibility.
too little amniotic fluid; fluid measures <5cm of the amniotic fluid index
too much amniotic fluid; fluid measures >22 cm of the amniotic fluid index
also know as pregancy-induced hypertension a complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and edema.
Rh blood group
system of antigens that may be found on the surface of red blood cells. When the Rh antigen is present , the blood type is Rh positive; when the Rh antigen is absent, the blood type is Rh negative. A pregnant woman who is Rh negative may become sensitized by the blood of Rh-positive, the Rh antibodies produced in maternal blood may cross the placenta and destroy fetal cells, causing erythroblastosis fetalis.
overlappying of the skull bones; indicates fetal death
systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)
inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems; a fetus of a mother with SLE may develop heart block and pericardial effusion.
twin-twin transfusion syndrome
monozygotic twin pregnancy with single placenta and arteriovenous shunt within the placenta; the donor twin becomes anemic and growth resticted with oligohydramnios; the recipient twin may develop hydrops and polyhydramnios.