# PSY3213C Test 3, FSU, Chapters 9, 10, & 11

### 31 terms by MyDarkling

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### statistics

a branch of mathematics that involves the collection, analysis, and organization of data

### descriptive statistics

procedures used to summarize data

### inferential statistics

procedures used to analyze data after an experiment is completed in order to determine whether the IV had a significant effect

### measurement

the assignment of symbols to events according to a set of rules

### scale of measurement

a set of measurement rules

### nominal scale

a scale in which the events are assigned to categories (i.e. left-handed vs right-handed)

### ordinal scale

a scale that permits events to be rank ordered without necessarily having equal distance between points

### interval scale

a scale that permits rank ordering with the assumption of equal intervals between adjacent events (no true zero)

### ratio scale

a scale of measurement that permits rank ordering, equal distance, and a true zero point

### mode

the score that occurs most often

### median

the number that divides a distribution in half

### mean

the mathematical average

### pie chart

graphical representation of the percentage allocated to each alternative as a slice of a circular pie

### histogram

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data, the bars touch, generally intervals

### bar graph

a graph in which the frequency of each category of a qualitative variable is represented as a vertical column, bars do not touch.

### frequency polygon

type of line graph that shows frequency distributions; made by placing a dot on each bar of a histogram, connecting the dots, and removing the bars

### line graph

a graph that uses line segments to show how data changes

### ordinate

vertical or y-axis of a graph

### abscissa

horizontal or x-axis of a graph

### variability

the extent to which scores are spread out around the mean

### range

a measure of variability that is computed by subtracting the smallest score from the largest score

### variance

a single number that represents the total amount of variation in a distribution, also the square of the standard deviation

### standard deviation

square root of the variance, has important relations to the normal curve

### normal distribution

a symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution having half the scores above the mean and half the scores below the mean (bell curve)

### correlation coefficient

a single number representing the degree of relation between two variables

### null hypothesis

the claim that the relationship proposed between two variables does not exist, or that the difference in data was due to chance (not the operation of the IV)

### t test

an inferential statistical test used to evaluate the difference between two means

### degrees of freedom

the ability of a number in a specified set to assume any value

### type I error

accepting the experimental hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true

### type II error

accepting the null hypothesis when the experimental hypothesis is true

### effect size

the magnitude or size of the experimental treatment

Example: