Biology Ch. 8 Vocab

44 terms by 0mlee

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anchorage dependence

may keep cells that become separated from their normal surroundings from dividing inappropriately

density-dependent inhibition

cell division slows down as the cell population becomes denser

growth factor

a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates cells in the vicinity to divide

cell cycle control system

cyclically operating set of proteins in the cell that both triggers and coordinates major events in the cell cycle

cancer cells

cells that do not have a properly functioning cell cycle control system and divide excessively

tumor

anormal mass of cells that comes from excessive growth (cancer cells)

benign tumor

abnormal mass of essentially normal cells

malignant tumor

mass of cancer cells that can spread

metastasis

spread of cancer cells beyond their original site

carcinomas

cancers that originate in the externalor internal coverings of the body such as skin or intestine lining

sarcomas

cancers in tissues that support the body such as bone and muscle

leukemias and lymphomas

cancers of bloodforming tissues such as bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes

life cycle

sequence of life stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next

sexual reproduction

reproductive process involving a sperm and an egg

genome

set of genetic material

asexual reproduction

reproductive process with one parent

chromosome

structure that contains DNA made of compacted chromatin

cell division

cellular reproduction

binary fission

asexual reproduction where cell divides into two equal individuals

chromatin

combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes

sister chromatid

identical part of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell

centromere

region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids join

cell cycle

orderly sequence of events that extends from the time a cell divides to form two daughter cells to the time those daughter cells divide

interphase

period of metabolic activity in the eukaryotic cell cycle

mitosis

division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei

cytokinesis

division of a cell's cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells

mitotic phase

mitosis + cytokinesis

prophase

coiling of chromatin into chromosomes, formation of mitotic spindle, fragmentation of nuclear envelope

metaphase

attatchment of microtubules to kinetochores, centromeres and thus chromosomes line up on metaphase plate

anaphase

begins when the centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separation of sister chromatids into daughter chromosomes, spindle microtubules retract

telophase

daughter nuclei form, mitotic spindle disappears

mitotic spindle

spindle shaped structure formed of microtubules and proteins involved in the movements of chromosomes

centrosome

microtubule-organizing center, cytoplasmic material of a eukaryotic cell that contains centrioles and gives rise to microtubules

cleavage furrow

shallow grove in an animal cell's surface that forms during cytokinesis of cell division

cell plate

double-membrane in a plant cell between which new cell wall forms during cytokinesis

kinetochore

protein structure at centromere region

metaphase plate

imaginary plane equidistant between the two poles of the mitotic spindle

first stage of mitosis: coiling of chromatin into chromosomes, formation of mitotic spindle, fragmentation of nuclear envelope

prophase

second stage of mitosis: attatchment of microtubules to kinetochores, centromeres and thus chromosomes line up on metaphase plate

metaphase

third stage of mitosis: begins when the centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separation of sister chromatids into daughter chromosomes, spindle microtubules retract

anaphase

fourth stage of mitosis: daughter nuclei form, mitotic spindle disappears

telophase

period of metabolic activity in the eukaryotic cell cycle

interphase

division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei

mitosis

division of a cell's cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells

cytokinesis

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