Distinguish among rates, frequencies, proportions, and ratios;
Construct crude and specific rates and differentiate these from adjusted rates;
Discuss the need for and differentiate methods of standardization of rates;
Differentiate between measures of frequency and measures of impact;
Describe the interrelationship between incidence and prevalence;
Calculate and interpret basic epidemiological measures to quantify health outcomes in the population;
Identify common indicators used to …
It is obtained by dividing one quantity (numerator) by another (denominator) without implying any specific relationship between the numerator and the denominator.
If there are 5 apples and 10 oranges, it is expressed as follows:
5 : 10 or 5 / 10
It is a type of ratio. It describes outcome as a reflection of a part to the whole. It is typically expressed as percentages. For example, if there are 225 people in a room and 89 of these are males, males is 89 / 225 = 0.396. Multiply the answer by 100 to get the percentage: 0.396 x 100 = 39.6%.