Micom 301 Final Exam

23 terms by swroxmysox1138 

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Endemic

Disease constantly present in a particular geographic area

Epidemic

Disease with an unusually high occurrence

Pandemic

Worldwide severe epidemic

Morbidity

Illness

Mortality

Death

Incidence

Number of new cases

Prevalence

Number of existing cases

Reservoir of Infection

Natural habitat of microbe

Zoonoses

Diseases of animals transmitted to humans

Horizontal Transmission

Direct contact between peoples

Vertical Transmission

Parents pass onto progeny; between a woman and fetus/infant via breastmilk

Fomite

Touching inanimate objects; indirect contact

Vectors

Arthropods that carry disease; Ex: Fleas (Yersina pestis), Mosquito (Plasmodium species, Malaria)

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug

Therapeutic Index

toxicity of a given drug; low = more toxic to patient, high = less toxic to patient

Bacteriostatic

Inhibit bacterial growth; host defenses eliminate remaining pathogens

Bactericidal

Kill bacteria

Broad Spectrum

Antimicrobials affect a wide range of bacteria, good for immediate therapy; good for GP and GN organisms

Narrow Spectrum

Antimicrobials affect a limited range of bacteria; less disruption of normal microbiota, but takes time to develop

Intrinsic/Innate Resistance

Types of bacteria inherently resistant to effects of a drug

Acquired Resistance

Sensitive organisms develop resistance via spontaneous mutation or acquiring new genetic information

Antigenic Drift

Minor mutations

Antigenic Shift

Genetic reassortment, dramatically different strains than original

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