chapter 15: diagnostic procedures and pharmacology

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assessment

evaluation or appraisal of a condition

vital signs

four key indications that the body systems are functioning

average temperature

98.6 degrees Fahrenheit

oral

in the mouth

aural

in the ear

axillary

under the arm

rectal

in the rectum

hypothermia

abnormally low body temperature

hyperthermia

extremely high fever

pulse

rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart

respiratory rate

number of complete respirations per minute

blood pressure

force of the blood against the walls of the arteries

sphygmomanometer

measures blood pressure

systolic

upper BP number

diastolic

lower BP number

pain

fifth vital sign in some hospitals

auscultation

listening for sounds within the body, usually performed through a stethoscope

auscultat/a

to listen

rale

abnormal rattle or crackle-like respiratory sound heard during inspiration, or breathing in

rhoncus

abnormal sound heard while listening to the chest during inspiration, expiration, or both

stridor

abnormal high-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation, result of a partial blockage of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea

bruit

abnormal sound heard during auscultation of an artery

heart murmur

abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves

abdominal sounds

normal noises made by the intestines

palpation

examination technique in which examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts

percussion

diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers

ophthalmoscope

instrument used to examine the interior of the eye

ophthalm/o

eye

speculum

instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facilitate the inspection of its interior

otoscope

instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane

stethoscope

instrument used to listen to sounds within the body

recumbent

any position in which the patient is lying down

prone position

patient is lying on the belly with the face down

horizontal recumbent position

patient is lying on the back with the face up

dorsal recumbent position

patient is lying on the fack with the knees bent

sims' position

patient is lying on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back

knee-chest position

patient is lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table

lithotomy position

patient is lying on the back with the feet and legs raised and supported in stirrups

stat

results are needed immediately

profile

tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multichannel laboratory testing equipment

phlebotomist

individual trained and skilled in phlebotomy

phlebotomy

puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood

phleb/o

vein

capillary puncture

technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test

complete blood cell count

series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

test based on the speed at which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container

hematocrit

percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red blood cells

hemat/o

blood

platelet count

measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function

red blood cell count

determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood

total hemoglobin test

usually part of a complete blood count

-globin

protein

white blood cell count

determination of the number of leukocytes in the blood

white blood cell differential test

determines what percentage of the total count is composed of each of the five types of leukocytes

basic metabolic panel

group of 8 specific blood tests that provide important information about the curent status of the patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and calcium levels

blood urea nitrogen test

measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea

crossmatch tests

performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion

c-reactive protein test

performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body

lipid panel

measures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in a blood sample

prothrombin time

test used to diagnose conditions associated with abnormalities sof clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy

serum bilirubin test

measures the ability of the liver ability to take up, process, and secrete bilirubin into the bile

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity

urinalysis

examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

casts

fibrous or protein materials, such as pus and fats, that are thrown off into the urine in kidney disease

pH of urine

4.5-8

acidosis

excessive acid in the body fluids

specific gravity

urine reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids that are present

acetone

sweet, fruity odor, found in small quantities in normal urine and in larger amounts in the urine of a diabetic

albuminuria

presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is a sign of impaired kidney function

bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in the urine

calciuria

presence of calcium in the urine

creatinuria

increased concentration of creatine in the urine

drug-screening urine test

rapid method of identifying in the body of one or more drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana

glycosuria

presence of glucose in the urine, is most commonly caused by diabetes

hematuria

presence of blood in the urine

ketonuria

presence of ketones in the urine

proteinuria

presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine

pyuria

presence of pus in the urine

urine culture and sensitivity tests

laboratory tests that are used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and to determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment

endoscopy

visual examination of the interior of a body cavity

endoscopic surgery

describes a surgical procedure performed through very small incisions with the use of an endoscope and specialized instruments

endoscope

small flexible tube with a light and a lens at the end

laparoscopy

visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope that is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall

centesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid

abdominocentesis

surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid

arthrocentesis

surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint

cardiocentesis

puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy

pericardiocentesis

puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid

tympanocentesis

surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected middle ear

tympan/o

eardrum

contrast medium

administered by swallowing, via an enema, or intravenously to make specific body structures visible

radiopaque

means that the substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film

radiolucent

substances does allow x-rays to pass through and appears black or dark gray on the resulting film

x-ray

uses x-rays passing through the patient to expose a film or create a digital image that shows the body in profile

CT scan

uses x-rays with computer assistance to produce multiple cross-sectional views of the body

MRI

uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce images

intravenous contrast medium

injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels and organs visible

barium

radiopaque contrast medium used primarily to visualize the gastrointestinal tract

radiology

x-rays, an image of hard-tissue internal structures is created by the exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation

radi/o

radiation

radiologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders with x-rays and other forms of radiant energy

radiographic positioning

describes the body placement and the part of the body closest to the x-ray film

radiographic projection

describes the path that the x-ray beam follows through the body from entrance to exit

anteroposterior projection

has the patient positioned with the back parallel to the film

posteroanterior projection

has the patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it

lateral projection

has the patient positioned at right angles to the film

oblique projection

has the patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film

extraoral radiography

film is placed and exposed outside of the mouth

panoramic radiograph

shows all of the structures in both dental arches in a single film

intraoral radiography

means that the film is placed within the mouth and exposed by a camera positioned next to the exterior of the cheek

periapical radiographs

show the entire tooth and some surround tissue

bite-wing radiographs

show the crowns of teeth in both arches on one side of the mouth

magnetic resonance angiography

combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body

fluoroscopy

visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen

fluor/o

glowing

cineradiography

recording of images as they appear in motion on a fluorescent screen

ultrasonography

imaging of deep body structures by recording the echoes of pulses of sound waves that are above the range of human hearing

sonogram

image created by ultrasonography

echocardiography

ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures and motion of the heart

ech/o

sound

doppler echocardiogram

performed in the same way as an echocardiogram; measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart

fetal ultrasound

noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy

transesophageal echocardiography

ultrasonic imaging technique used to evaluate heart structures

nuclear medicine

radioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes

radiopharmaceuticals

radioactive substances

nuclear scan

diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear medicine technology to gather information about the structure and function of organs or body systems not seen on x-rays

bone scan

nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown

thyroid scan

radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine is administered

single photon emission computed tomography

type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing perfusion through organs and tissues

perfusion

flow of bood through an organ

positron emission tomography

combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas

pharmacology

study of the nature, uses, and effects of drugs for medical purposes

pharmacist

licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications

prescription

medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional such as a physician or dentist

over-the-counter

medication that can be purchased without a prescription

generic drug

usually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark

brand-name drug

sold under the name given by the manufacturer

addiction

compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a drug, alcohol, or other substance

adverse drug reaction

undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken

compliance

patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional

contraindication

factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised

drug interaction

result of drugs reacting with each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful

idiosyncratic reaction

unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual

palliative

substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it

paradoxical reaction

result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results

placebo

inactive substance that is administered only for its suggestive effects

potentiation

drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug

antipyretic

medication administered to prevent or reduce fever

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