A functional consequence of an impairment
(1) In the WHO nomenclature, a disability is:
Unilaterally hard of hearing
A person has lost hearing in the right ear, presumably as a result of exposure to gun blasts during duck-hunting season. This person may be best described as
Hearing loss degree, onset, causation, and progression
A teacher and school speech-language pathologist wish to develop an aural rehabilitation plan for a 6 y/o child. They might search the audiological records for information concerning:
The family and the patient's frequent communication partners will be included in the aural rehabilitation plan
If someone says to a speech and hearing professional, "The aural rehabilitation plan will address the patient's communication realms," the professional might interpret this statement as
The audiologist integrates patient preference, scientific evidence, and his past clinical experience with various aids and makes a recommendation
A patient who has hearing loss asks her audiologist to fit her with an inexpensive hearing aid that she has read about in the newspaper. The audiologist performs a literature review and learns that three randomized controlled trials have shown this hearing aid to be less effective than a more expensive hearing aid. EBP would suggest the following course of action for the audiologist:
A case study describing two individuals who experienced sudden hearing loss
An example of Level III evidence is:
(2) Mrs. Mills complains that she can hear speech with no problem, even if the talker is speaking softly, but that she cannot understand it well. Her configuration of hearing loss is most likely:
Barely even hear voices, unless the talker is speaking loudly
A child who has a severe hearing loss and who is not wearing a hearing aid may
Will dictate one's choice of test
The purpose of speech recognition testing
Stimuli such as eepee and eesee might be included in a test designed to assess a patient's:
The group of words having similar acoustic-phonetic characteristics
In speech testing, a neighborhood refers to:
Is considered a native bilingual if he or she speaks the language like someone from the country of origin
A Spanish bilingual patient
The advantage afforded by adding hearing to vision is known as
The test stimuli are presented live-voice
Which is seldom true when testing speech recognition?
Equivalent lists are sometimes used to bypass the difficulties associated with
An audiologist is about to administer a speech recognition test in the presence of background noise. The audiologist has chosen a noise source that best mimics a crowded convention hall. This noise is:
Persons with severe hearing loss performed about as well as persons with moderate hearing loss
A group of researchers attempted to validate a new test of speech recognition. The test demonstrated poor validity for the following reason:
(3) A hearing aid that permits the patient to adjust the way sound is processed, depending on the listening conditions and the sound stimuli, is said to have
a directional microphone
Mrs. Cantor is a loan officer at a bank. She works at one of several desks that line the bank's main hall. She wants to be able to talk to her clients one-on-one, even though the hall is noisy. Her audiologist most likely would equip her hearing aid with:
The input SPL compared to the output SPL in a compression circuitry is known as
Acts as a miniature loudspeaker and delivers sound to the tympanic membrane.
The receiver of a hearing aid
The least popular style of hearing aid sold in the US is
If a person has chronic otitis media, then a BTE aid with a nonoccluding earmold may be the most appropriate style of hearing aid.
Which statement is true?
Elimination of head shadow
An advantage of binaural amplification is
Delivers micromechanical vibration
A middle ear implant
Asks him about his preference
Mr. Howard has been deemed an appropriate candidate to receive a hearing aid. When considering what kind of hearing aid to prescribe, his audiologist first:
Jennifer undergo a trial period with a hearing aid for 3 months and then be considered for cochlear implant candidacy
Jennifer Martin is an 18 m/o baby. She had her hearing tested 2 weeks ago. Her audiologist determined she has a bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss. The audiologist would recommend that:
The speech processor
The component of a cochlear implant that modifies the acoustic signal and separates it into frequency bands is called
feature extraction processing
Which of the following is an older development in the realm of cochlear implants?
Noise that is present in a room, even when it is empty, is referred to as
An example of an ALD wireless system is
A relay system
A person with profound hearing loss who wishes to make a telephone call to his or her insurance agent may take advantage of (choose the best option)
Her hearing aid telecoil and induction loop technology
A patient tells her audiologist that she will soon leave her home in Pasadena, California, for a vacation in London. The audiologist likely discusses which of the following topics with her?
Contrasting words beginning with /m/ and /n/ rather than words beginning with /d/ and /sh/
(4) Which modification would make an auditory training activity more difficult?
The preponderance of the evidence suggests that it is beneficial for both children and adults, but there are some data to the contrary.
Which statement best captures what research tells us about the efficacy of auditory training?
Saundra dropped the lid to a pan onto the tile kitchen floor. Her daughter, playing in the room next to the kitchen, turned her head. The daughter's response is best describe as:
An activity where a student is asked to discriminate word pairs is best described as
By changing the number of items in the stimulus set
A clinician can decrease the level of training difficulty in an auditory training intervention session
Discriminating vowels w/ similar first- and- second formant information.
Which of the following tasks is likely to be included later rather than earlier in an auditory training intervention?
place of articulation
The consonant feature that is typically most difficult for persons with hearing loss to hear is
Discriminate nasal from non-nasal unvoiced consonants
The activity that a beginning student most likely will perform early on in auditory training is the following:
Not an optimal reinforcement activity because it is too time consuming
Ms. Hoffman has prepared a reinforcement for her 5y/o student. Every time the child recognizes a word correctly, she will get to make an animal out of clay. This activity is:
Children may be distracted by the content of the speech and, thus, may not attend to its acoustic qualities, thereby diluting the benefit.
(5) Which of the following statements about informal auditory training is false?
Which curriculum was designed to be used for children ranging in age from birth to 5 years?
"The student will discriminate minimal pair words differing in nasality" is an example of a(n)
Intelligence quotient correlates positively with lipreading ability
Which statement below is false?
focus primarily on the mouth, nose, and eye region
When someone lipreads, the person's eyes:
Mr. Simmons is taking a lipreading test. Which word is he most likely to identify incorrectly?
sounds look different on the mouth depending on the phonetic context of a word
One reason lipreading is so difficult is because
Which two sounds are examples of a viseme?
The McGurk Effect is an example of
a store clerk w/ a foreign accent
Who would be the most difficult person to speechread?
The word with low frequency of usage has far fewer lexical neighbors than the word with a high frequency of usage
Typically, a word that has a high frequency of usage is easier to identify on the face than a word that has low frequency of usage. An exception to this rule of thumb is:
Speaks with a slow speaking rate, with good enunciation and appropriate pausing
A man who speaks with clear speech:
optimal angle for speechreading the talker
The research is ambiguous on which of the following issues?
Mouths the message of a talker, or quietly repeats it, so that the patient can lipread it
An oral interpreter
(10) An intervention that focuses on conversational behaviors and effective means for interacting with others can best be described as:
Congruence with self
Someone who behaves in a genuine fashion and who does not assume a facade of professionalism is said to have:
Mrs. Greenfield has just been told that she has a hearing loss. She does not know much about the anatomy of the ear, hearing loss, hearing aids, or assistive listening devices. At this point, the clinician is most likely to provide:
An audiologist has performed an audiological evaluation on Mr. Thompson. The audiogram reveals a noise-induced hearing loss. The audiologist starts the informational counseling session by saying, "I'll first talk about the ear and about hearing, then I will talk about today's test results, and then about what might happen next. We will also talk about ways to protect your ears against noise." This introduction is an example of:
Problem identification, exploration, resolution
The stages of a problem-solving approach in psychosocial support are:
Understanding the time course of hearing loss over time
Psychosocial support typically focuses on all of the following except:
The impact of hearing loss on self-image
The spouse's ability to deal with the effects of hearing loss
Negative attitudes about self and others
Psychosocial support typically focuses on:
Creating a scenario is one means of initiating:
They play an influential role in shaping patients' self-images and self-confidence
Patient's frequent communication partners are often encouraged to attend psychosocial support sessions for many reasons, but especially because:
REBT (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy), where her evaluation of the event is disputed
A woman believes that she did not receive a promotion at work because she has a hearing loss. The audiologist uses the following approach to challenge this belief:
Communication strategies training
Assertiveness training may include the same three stages as:
The most successful program is one that best determines a patient's background, current status, needs, and wants and then accommodates them through the delivery of a customized aural rehabilitation plan.
(11) A patient-centered approach means that:
A hearing loss with a 4,000 Hz "notch," so that hearing is poorer at 4,000 Hz than at either 2,000 Hz or 8,000 Hz
A 40-year-old farmer arrives at an audiological clinic. He is most likely to have what configuration of hearing loss?
Translate a pamphlet about hearing aid use from English into Spanish
Marie Remez speaks Spanish and very little English. She has contracted a professional translator to perform a service. This service is most likely to be to:
Most tinnitus has a medical origin, such as temporomandibular joint disorder or respiratory and vascular conditions
Which of the following statements about tinnitus is false?
There is not likely to be a single intervention that is appropriate for all sufferers.
Individuals who have a history of noise exposure often suffer from tinnitus.
Eating too many pretzels or potato chips may exacerbate the experience of tinnitus.
Facts about Tinnitus:
Tom, who attended a residential school for the deaf and married his high school sweetheart.
Which individual is most likely to be considered a member of the Deaf culture?
A patient with LEP (limited English proficiency) arrives at a public hospital for an appointment. Since the hospital receives federal funding, what is likely to be available when she arrives?
What services will an adult from the Deaf culture likely not seek from a speech and hearing professional?
Aural rehabilitation typical begins during which phase in the time course of acquired hearing loss?
Nonmonetary costs of seeking aural rehabilitation services
Mrs. Davidson has anxieties about aging. For this reason, she is reluctant to visit an audiological clinic and have her hearing loss confirmed by an audiologist. This fear is an example of:
Attend cultural events in the community and develop a relationship with a person who can serve as a cultural informant
One way in which a speech and hearing professional can better serve his or her patient case load is to:
The audiologist would take an impression of his ear for an ITE (in-the-ear) hearing aid.
(12) Mr. Garcia has arrived for his first audiological procedure. An audiogram has confirmed what he has long suspected: a bilateral moderate sensorineural hearing loss. What would probably not happen on this first visit?
Hearing impairment, individual factors, and hearing-related difficulties
During the assessment phase, the audiologist would most likely consider which of the following variables first as he or she designs an aural rehabilitation plan for an adult patient:
(Items x and x)
Patients focus on those listening challenges that brought them to the professional to begin with.
One solution may lead to another problem, which in turn may lead to another solution.
In a solution-centered, problem-solving framework:
Was originally developed to assess hearing aid benefit, although it can be used to guide the overall aural rehabilitation plan
The Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI):
The totality of a patient's state and situation, including disorders, impairments, disabilities, environments, demands, resources, attitudes, and behaviors
In the context of an aural rehabilitation plan, a predicament is best defined as:
The patient cannot engage in one-on-one conversations in the presence of background music.
Which of the following is an example of an activity limitation?
They believe their hearing is too good to warrant use of an aid.
The following are reasons that patients may choose not to use a hearing aid. Which is probably the most prevalent reason?
In developing motivation for hearing aid use, the first step is usually:
How to troubleshoot problems
During the hearing aid fitting and orientation, a patient typically learns:
Motivational classes to use the device
Once most patients receive a cochlear implant, they engage in all but the following:
Recommends that he see a otolaryngologist because the tinnitus might be symptomatic of an auditory neuroma
Mr. Rampart comes to an audiologist complaining of unilateral tinnitus. The audiologist:
Receives counseling about how the brain learns to attenuate emotional and autonomic responses
During tinnitus retraining therapy, a patient:
To ask the patient to role-play with the clinician ways to instruct the telephone conversational partner
One of the first steps in telephone training is:
An auditory processing deficit
(13) An older adult is unable to understand a news broadcaster who speaks with a clipped and brisk speaking rate, even though she has normal audiometric thresholds bilaterally. This difficulty may be most indicative of:
Softening of ear canal cartilage occurs with aging.
An older person may present with a conductive hearing loss because:
More common among men than women
Hearing loss in the elderly is:
A combination of neural and metabolic factors
Physiologically, the most common cause of presbycusis is:
One older person is able to recite correctly 5 consecutive digits after hearing a talker speak 10 in a row whereas another person is able to recite 7. These two individuals differ in their:
Duration of deafness is a good predictor of benefit.
Which of the following statements is true about cochlear implants and older persons?
That hearing aids are more user-friendly
Which is not a reason that an older person may opt not to use an ALD (Assistive Listening Devices)?
Distinguish light from dark
Contrast sensitivity refers to a patient's ability to:
Might take longer than a younger person in deciding that the words "bat" and "bait" do not rhyme
An older person may have reduced processing speed. For example, this person:
Be fearful and tense
An older person who opts not to use a hearing aid, even if needed, is more likely than someone who does use a hearing aid to:
Use insert earphones to eliminate the possibility of collapsing ear canals
Mr. Freeman has arrived at your clinic for a hearing test. Mr. Freeman is 79 years old. During pure-tone testing, you might make the following adjustment in your test procedures:
In-services are difficult to schedule, because of work shifts.
There are many difficulties inherent in preventing an in-service to personnel in a nursing home facility. One of the prime difficulties is that:
(14) The percentage of children who have hearing loss and who also have another disability is:
The percentage of children who have hearing loss and who are born to parents who have normal hearing is:
Parental radiation that results in hearing loss is an example of what kind of cause for hearing loss?
A child may experience a delayed-onset hearing loss most likely as a result of:
Mild to moderate conductive
Otitis media can result in what kind of hearing loss?
Alport is an example of:
The third month of life
The goal of the National Institutes of Health in the United States is that all children who have hearing loss are identified by:
Children who fail a screening test in the newborn nursery have a hearing loss.
Which of the following statements is false?
(regarding children and hearing loss)
Vibration of the outer hair cells
OAEs occur because of:
An approach to providing health care to infants and their families
A medical home is:
Behavioral observational audiometry
In audiology, the acronym BOA stands for:
Present OAEs and abnormal ABRs
Auditory neuropathy is characterized by:
Mary Jones has pure-tone averages of 10 dB HL in each ear. She has a hard time distinguishing between a series of three tone pips and a series of four tone pips. Mary most likely has:
Shock and grief often co-occur.
Which statement is true?
(regarding parents' reactions to their child's HL)
Facilitates and helps develop the IFSP
A service coordinator is a person who:
Typically are fitted with BTE (behind-the-ear).
Babies who have hearing loss:
A child is placed in an environment that imposes the least limitations while still allowing the child to thrive when compared to peers who do not have a disability.
What is meant by the term least restrictive environment?
Parents will have an opportunity to question the IEP, and if necessary, have a due process hearing. They have the option to be accompanied by counsel and other individuals with specialized knowledge about their child.
What is due process with respect to the IDEA?
A federal mandated plan for the education of preschool children, which emphasizes family involvement
What best describes the IFSP?
Cued Speech is equivalent to the manual alphabet.
Which of the following statements is false?
(regarding Cued Speech)
Is used by a minority of children who are deaf or hard of hearing
The position of the hand on the face and neck conveys vowel information
For cochlear implant users, which mode of communication results in the development of optimal speech and language skills?
Ensure that the child learns the native language of the Deaf culture
(15) The IDEA stipulates that the IEP team will do all but the following for the child who has profound and congenital hearing loss:
Provide opportunity for direct communication with classmates
Provide access to assistive listening devices, as needed
Provide access to a sign interpreter, as needed
The IDEA stipulates that the IEP team will do all of the following for the child who has profound and congenital hearing loss:
The itinerant teacher
Which professional is most likely to prepare a student for new material before the student encounters it in the regular classroom?
Ensure that children who require audiological services receive them
School districts that have a self-contained classroom for students who are deaf and hard of hearing are required to do which of the following:
Which of the following is an example of an appropriate format accommodation:
Presence of sound due to signals being reflected from room surfaces
Reverberation refers to:
Educational models that entail a team of teachers, one a regular classroom teacher and the other, a teacher with specialized training
A coenrollment classroom is an example of:
Typical segmental errors made by children who have profound deafness include:
On average, children who have profound hearing loss achieve about what level of intelligibility?
Which of the following is not a common error associated with vowel production by children who have significant hearing loss?
Common errors associated with vowel production by children who have significant hearing loss?
Of the following sounds, which one is most likely to be produced correctly by a talker who has a profound hearing loss?
A child sees a car driving by and says, "Cars go fast."
Which is an example of a problem related to form?
To omit function words such as "of" and "to"
When writing an essay, a fourth grader who has significant hearing loss is likely:
Barely allow them to read a local newspaper with understanding
Reading levels of high school graduates who have significant hearing loss and who use hearing aids:
Janice is a 5-year-old girl. She lost her hearing at the age of 2 months, following a severe viral infection. Eleven months ago, Janice received a cochlear implant. She is beginning to articulated the following sounds accurately:
Collect a variety of measures, as children's performance may vary as a function of task type
When collecting a speech or language sample, it is important to:
A guardian present in the room when the sample is collected
Which of the following factors probably has the least effect on a child's speech intelligibility score?
A hierarchy of speech skills
The speech therapy program developed by Daniel Ling is based on:
May experience social isolation
Sometimes children who have significant hearing loss experience socialization issues. For example, they: