The group composed of everyone involved in the creation, distribution, and consumption of any cultural product.
A group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society's values and norms.
The dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group to another.
Cultural influence caused by willingly adopting another culture's products; also the imposition of one culture's beliefs, practices, and artifacts on another culture through such consumer products and mass media.
The process by which cultures that were once distinct become increasingly similar.
The principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture.
The entire way of life of a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next.
Clashes within mainstream society over the values and norms that should be upheld.
The values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful (in terms of wealth, prestige, status, influence, etc.).
The principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal.
A loosely enforced norm involving common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance.
The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate without words; actions that have symbolic meaning.
Term developed by Antonio Gramsci to describe the cultural aspects of social control whereby the ideas of the dominant social group are accepted by all of society.
Those forms of cultural expression usually associated with the elite or dominant classes.
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that members of a society believe should be observed in principle.
A group of people dedicated to the consumption and interpretation of a particular cultural product and who create a collective, social meaning for the product.
A system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures, or written symbols; the basis of symbolic culture and the primary means through which we communicate with one another and perpetuate our culture.
A common type of formally defined norm providing an explicit statement about what is permissible and what is illegal in a given society.
The objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork; any physical object which we give social meaning.
A norm that carries great moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a cultural group, and often involves severe repercussions for violators.
A policy that values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences within society rather than assimilation.
A rule or guideline regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture.
Having many possible meanings or interpretations.
Usually contrasted with the high culture of elite groups; forms of cultural expression usually associated with the masses, consumer goods, and commercial products.
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that actually exist within a society (which may or may not correspond to the society's ideals).
Positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violations.
A symbol that stands for or conveys an idea.
The formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion.
The idea that language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language.
A group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle.
The ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communication).
A norm ingrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion.
Areas of culture that share similar aesthetics and standards of taste.
Groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, media, recreational, and intellectual interests.
A theory of social change that assumes changes in technology drive changes in society, rather than vice versa.
Material artifacts and the knowledge and techniques required to use them.
Ideas about what is desirable or contemptible and right or wrong in a particular group. They articulate the essence of everything that a cultural group cherishes and honors.