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history final

belief in one god

what are the common beliefs that are held by muslims, jews, and christians?

the choice of a caliph

the split between sunni and shiite muslims began w/ disagreement over...

merchant

before muhammad became the prophet of islam, he was a

give alms

according to the 5 pillars of islam, every muslim must...

based on their gov. on muslim traditions

what do both the ottoman and safavid empires have in common?

persian styles

ottoman and safavid artists were influenced by...styles

humanistic concerns

the artists of the renaissance focused on

increased literacy

the development of printing in europe led to

earth travels around the sun (heliocentric)

copernicus proposed that

a wealthy merchant class

what contributed to the birth of the renaissance in italy?

the black death delayed economic growth

what best explains why the renaissance occurred in northern europe later than it did in italy?

spread of ideas

what was an effect of the printing revolution in the 1500s?

took over english church

how did henry Vll react when the pope refused to annul his marriage?

selling indulgences luther criticized the roman catholic church for...

luther criticized the roman catholic church for...

wanted to find new trade routes

what was the most important reason why european rulers encouraged ocean exploration?

portugal led the way in exploration

how did prince harry change the course of portugal's history?

brazil

name some places which wee influenced by portuguese culture...

corn

what would represent a native american influence on european colonists?

enslaved africans

by the 1500s, the most important element of african trade w/ europeans was

c. columbus

who began a vast global exchange that included people, plants, technologies, and cultures?

native american population

what resulted from encounters between the spanish and native americans?

worked as slaves on plantations

european traders sent africans to the americans to

huguenots

late 1500s, france was torn apart by religious

germany

what country was divided into many small states as a a result of thirty years' war

to gain control of german states

prussia and austria battled in the 1700s because

gaining a warm water port on the black sea

peter the great fought the ottoman turks because

protect the liberties of people

montesquieu believed the purpose of the separations of powers was to

great britain

who controlled the trade within the british colonies?

john locke

who's ideas were reflected in the declaration?

calling for a just society based on reason

thinkers during the age of reason challenged the est. social order by

thinkers during the age of reason challenged the est. social order by

joseph ll adopted englightenment ideas in order to

land owning aristocrats

Tory party in britain was made up of

taxation w/o representation

US resentment of british rule increased after 1763 over

john locke Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of the philosopher

Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of the philosopher

the third estate

the bourgeoisie belonged to which group?

create a lasting peace

what was the chief goal of the congress of vienna?

encircle france w/ strong countries why did congress of vienna redraw the boundaries of some euro countries?

why did congress of vienna redraw the boundaries of some euro countries?

there was inequality among the 3 estates

what do we know is true about france's social structure in the late 1800's?

the third estate

France's economy was mainly supported by...during the late 1800's and early 1900's

by becoming more radical

how did the french respond to threats to the revolution?

guaranteed the equality of all citizens by the law

how did the napoleonic code reflect enlightment principles?

improved farm machinery

what helped the british farmers increase food production in the 1700s?

steam engine

what became an important source of power for the industrial revolution?

provided fuel to produce iron

why was coal important to the industrial revolution?

worked +12 hrs a day outside the home early in the industrial revolution, working-class women

early in the industrial revolution, working-class women

practicing enclosure

during the agricultural revolution in the 1700s, wealthy landowners increased food production by

british business class had large profits to invest

what reasons explain why britain took the lead 9n the industrial revolution?

working conditions were dangerous & inhumane

what is true regarding workers in mines/factories during early industrial revolution?

middle class

which group benefited most from the industrial revolution?

improved sanitation

what was a direct result of the discovery that germs caused disease?

in tenements near the factories

in the 19th century cities, the poor lived

unions

what group is most closely linked to labor reform?

middle class

which social group grew the fastest during the 1800s?

sewage system

which new features of city life in the late 1800s has the greatest impact on the poor?

middle class

"a woman's place is in the home" reflected the values of which groups in 1850?

unification of germany

bismark was responsible for the

substantial iron and coal reserves

what contributed to germany's growth as an industrial power under bismark?

industrial workers

social reforms passed in britain in the late 1800s had the greatest impact on the poor?

austria-hungary

on the eve of ww1, bosnia was ruled by

automatic machine gun

weapons that contributed most to the stalemate on the western front during ww1 was

modern weapons

ww1 was more destructive than earlier wars because

involvement of usa

what helped allies acgueve the breakthrough they sought in ww1?

treaty of brest-livosk

what event ended russia's involvement in ww1?

in ruins

in 1918, europe was

more gov. involvement in people's lives

one effect of the great depression in the US was

feelings of hopelessness and loss

after ww1, the works of many important writers expressed

labor-saving devices

what had the greatest impact on the women's lives after ww1?

promised a better life

many italiams supported the fascist party because it

loyalty

what personality trait was most valued in fascist italy?

persecution and elemination of jews

some of hitler's goals were

soviet union

nation that suffered the highest number of casualties in ww1 was

massacre of more than 6 million jews

the term holocaust refers to the

allowed the US to take the offensive in the Pacific

battle of midway was a turning point that

france yearned revenged against germany to gan leading powers

how did aggressive nationalism push france and germany to the brink of war in the early 1900s?

serbians viewed austrians as foreign oppressors

what ethnic tensions in bosnia led to the assassination of archduke francis ferdinand and launched ww1?

germans used subs to attack ships carrying american citizens

which of the following was a major reason the US exchanged neutrality for war in 1917?

because there was no way to enforce bans on war

steps taken by the major powers to promote peace following ww1 have limited effects

spanish civil war

event that became dress rehearsal for ww2 by showing the destructive power of modern warfare

soviet union

operation barbarossa is hitler's plan to conquer

brought US into war

japanese attack on pearl harbor, hawaii brought

allied invasion of france

d-day is

midway island

battle that was a turning point after US took offensive in pacific

surrender of germany

the war ended in europe with the

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