Sociology-chapter one flashcards set

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Words in bold defined from Intro to Sociology-Macionis

Sociology

This is the systematic study of human society.

Sociological Perspective

Peter Berger described this as seeing the general in the particular. By this he meant that sociologists look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people. Although every individual is unique, a society shapes the lives of its members.

4 Benefits to Using SOCIOLOGY

1) The sociological perspective helps us assess the truth of "common sense."
2) It helps us see the opportunity and constraints in our lives.
3)It empowers us to be active participants in our society.
4)Helps us live in a diverse world.

Auguste Comte

French Social thinker, known as the Father of Sociology, coined the term itself.

Comte saw sociology as the product of a three- stage historical development. What are they?

1)Theological stage:People took a religious view that society expressed God's will. (15th century)
2)Metaphysical stage: where people saw society reflected not the perfection of God so much as the failings of a selfish human nature.
3)Scientific stage: Began with the work of early scientists such as Galileo, Newton. Comte's contribution came in applying the scientific approach first used to study the physical world--to the the study of society.

Theory

It is a statement of how and why specific facts are related.

What are the three major Theoretical Approaches? (or the basic image of society that guides thinking and research)

The structural-functional approach, the social conflict approach, and the symbolic-interaction approach.

Define structural-functional approach

It is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability./social structure gives our lives shape in families, workplace, classroom, communities.

Robert K. Merton/ Define Manifest functions, Latent functions and social dysfunction.

Manifest functions-the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
Latent functions-the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
Social dysfunction-is any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.

Social-conflict approach

This is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.

Symbolic interaction approach

This is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyda interactions of individuals.

Macro-level orientation

The structural functional and social-conflict approaches share a macro-level orientation, a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.

Micro-level orientation

A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations. Exploring urban life on the street level, where one might watch children invent games on a school playground.or how pedestrians observe a homeless man on the street.

global perspective

the study of the larger world and our society's place in it.

positivism

a way of understanding based on science.

theoretical approach

a basic image of society that guides thinking and research.

social structure

any relatively stable pattern of social behavior

social functions

the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.

social conflict approach

a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.

gender-conflict approach

a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men

feminism

the advocacy of social equality for women and men.

race conflict approach

a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.

stereotypes

an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category

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