(Polish) astronomer; first to theorize the sun-centered model, i.e., that Earth revolves around the sun (heliocentric theory); began the scientific revolution
stated that the sun is at the center of the known universe (solar system); originated with Copernicus; published and defended by Galileo
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
Copernicus' work describing the heliocentric model of the universe
(Italian) physicist/astronomer; publicized Copernicus's findings; first used telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by Catholic Church for his work
Galileo's published observations thru the telescope: moon's rough surface, sun spots, Jupiter's moons, Saturn's rings; strongly argued heliocentric theory
"Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"
Galileo's book that presented the ideas of both Copernicus and Ptolemy; clearly Galileo supported the Copernican theory; pope ordered him to stand trial before the Inquisition
(German) mathematician/astronomer; first stated laws of planetary motion; helped prove the heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the universe and elliptical planet orbits
Sir Isaac Newton
(English) mathematician/astronomer/physicist; invented calculus; discovered laws of light and color; laws of gravitation; laws of MOTION (although be aware T-B may say "thermodynamics"; Newton may have had something remotely to do with the 2nd Law, Entropy)
one of Newton's laws; force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses
3 volume set of Newton's work (calculus, gravitation, motion); considered one of the most important works in the history of science
(German) one of the first female astronomers; discovered a comet; made charts, calendars and constructed the first almanac, aiding in agriculture, naval expeditions, etc.
(Flemish) scientist; pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems; disproved Galen's physiological theory; sneaked out dead bodies (illegally) to study them; inspired Mary Shelley; considered the "father of modern anatomy"
"On the Fabric of the Human Body"
Vesalius' work on the human anatomy
(English) physician; demonstrated blood circulation and the function of the heart as a pump
"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"
Harvey's work on the circulatory system
(English) physicist/chemist; discovered the nature of elements and compounds; discovered Boyle's Law; considered one of the founders of modern chemistry
in chemistry, one of several gas laws; states that gas pressure and volume have an inverse relationship
Sir Francis Bacon
(English) scientist/philosopher; teamed with David Hume and pioneered the scientific method
scientific (Baconian) method
1) observe; 2) hypothesize; 3) experiment; 4) draw conclusion; 5) check & repeat
(French) chemist/biologist; published first modern science (chemistry) textbook; found and termed both oxygen & hydrogen; helped construct metric system; put together first extensive list of elements; helped reform chemical nomenclature
medieval chemical philosophy based on changing metal into gold (practiced by Newton and Boyle); a seemingly magical power or process of transmutation
Laws of Thermodynamics
1) CONSERVATION: energy or matter can neither be created nor destroyed; 2) ENTROPY: energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy; 3) PERPETUAL MOTION IMPOSSIBLE: all processes cease as temperature approaches absolute zero, i.e., there is no energy at that temp
the falling of an apple from a tree is said to be Newton's inspiration for his formulation of the theory of universal gravitation