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A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives is called

direct democracy

__ was the wise statesman who led Athens during much of its golden age

Pericles

A temple crafted by the sculptor Phidias to honor the goddess Athena was the

Parthenon

The Greek values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion in art served as the standard for what became known as

Classical Art

A __ was a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, and betrayal

tragedy

The greatest historian of the Greek classical age was

Thucydides

Greek city-states Athens and Sparta fought each other in the

Peloponnesian War

Greek thinkers who were determined to seek the truth were called

philosophers

The __ were a group of thinkers who questioned the existence of the traditional Greek gods.

Sophists

One thinker who developed a method of teaching using questions and answers was

Socrates

__ was a famous thinker who set forth his idea of a perfectly governed society in The Republic

Plato

A philosopher who opened a school in Athens called the Lyceum was

Aristotle

__ were two officials who shared the powers of ruling the republic and whose time in office was limited to one year.

Consuls

In the early Roman republic, the __ power was absolute but his time in office was limited to a six-month period

Dictator

The __ are the people who first settled the land on the bend of the Tiber River that was to become Rome

Etruscans

___ were wealthy aristocratic landowners of ancient Rome who held most of the power in the early republic

Patricians

Carthaginian general ____ led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the Alps to invade Italy.

Hannibal

A ____ was a military division of the Roman army.

Legion

The ____ were elected to represent the lower class of Roman citizens.

Tribune

The ____ people were the common farmers, merchants, workers, and artisans that made up the majority of Roman citizens

Plebians

The ____ were chosen to represent the upper class of Roman Citizens

Senators

____ was a daring Roman general during the Second Punic War.

Scipio

____, a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices, helped weaken the Roman empire.

Inflation

After serving as consul for a year, ____ led his troops in conquering Gaul. His great popularity was a source of concern to ____, who managed to have him ordered back to Rome.

Julius Caesar, Pompey

On the Ides of March, ____ was assassinated in the Senate by a group of conspirators

Julius Caesar

Under the rule of ____ as emperor Rome entered a 200 year period of peace and prosperity known as the ____

Augustus, Pax Romana

Slaves had few of the benefits of this prosperity. All were victims of their owner's whims. Some called ____ were forced to battle to the death before an arena full of eager spectators.

Gladiators

The reign of Marcus Aurelius marked the end of two centuries of peace and prosperity known as the ____

Pax Romana

Roman soldiers had become less loyal, so the government was forced to hire ____ to defend the empire.

mercenaries

A reform minded emperor who divided the empire into two sections was ____

Diocletian

Under Constantine the capital of the empire was moved from Rome to ____ in what is now

Byzantium, Turkey

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