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NCCT Student Study Guide

Homeostasis

When the internal environment of the body is functioning properly

Physiology

Science of the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body

Abduction

Lateral movement of the limbs away from the median plane of the body

Ectopic

Extrauterine pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum begins to develop outside of the uterus

Jejunum

Second part of the small intestine

Ileum

Third part of the small intestine

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine

Red Blood Cells

One of the vital functions of the long bones is the formation of

Hemiplagia

Unilateral paralysis that follows damage to the brain

Echocardiography

instrument used to record an image of the heart using an ultrasound (EKG)

Saliva

The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion

Villi

Small finger-like projections in the small intestine where nutrients are absorbed into the blood

Decubitus Ulcers

Infected pressure sores on the skin

Hemorrhoids

Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.

Carcinogenic

Cancer causing

Hernia

Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it

Cholelithiasis

Presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

Retinitis

Inflammation of the retina.

Bland diet

Diet with foods mild in flavor and easy to digest.

Nasogastric tube

Feeding tube that goes through the nose then the pharynx and into the stomach

Lavage

Washing out of the stomach through a nasogastric tube.

1000-5000 liters

Amount of urine a healthy adult excretes

Urinary incontinence

Inability to control urination

Dysuria

Bad, painful urination

Septal defect

Abnormal, usually congenital defect in the wall separating the two chambers of the heart

Purkinje fibers

Fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract

Angina pectoris

Pain or tightness in the chest which radiates to the left arm, jaw or neck caused by the lack of blood supply to the heart

Angina

Severe constricting pain

Myocardial infarction

Obstruction of coronary artery causing death of an area of the myocardium due to blockage of blood and oxygen supply is called,

Heart

A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

Right

Deoxygenated blood enter the ______ atrium of the heart

Right ventricle

When the right atrium contracts it forces blood thru the tricuspid vavle into the

Pulmonary artery

Carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary artery

Right ventricle pumps the used blood to the lungs by way of the

Blepharitis

Inflammation of the eyelids.

Stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth.

Rickets

Caused by Vitamin D deficiency

Scurvy

Caused by Vitamin C deficiency

Beriberi

Caused by Vitamin B deficiency or Thiamine

Meniscus

Concave level of fluid in a tube or cylinder, concave curvature

Arthrocentesis

Surgical puncture of a joint for removal of fluid

Abduction

Moving away from the midline

Adduction

Moving toward the midline

Supination

Lying on back w/ palms up

Purkinje Fibers

Responsible for contracting the ventricles of the heart

SA node

Heart's natural pacemaker

Paraplegia

Paralysis from the waist down

Quadriplegia

Paralysis in all four extremities

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

Lordiosis

Abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine pushes abdomen forward; swayback

Kyphosis

Exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine

Hypoglycemic

Low blood sugar level

Spine Break Down

Cervical vertebrae: 7
Thoracic vertebrae: 12
Lumbar vertebrae: 5

Rhinorrhea

Runny nose

Urinary sytem

Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder and one urethra

Kidneys

Produce urine and help regulate body fluids

Ureters

Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Urinary bladder

Serves as a reservoir for urine

Urinary bladder

Can hold up to 300-500 ml of urine at one time

Spleen

located behind the stomach, filters blood by removing damaged red blood cells from the blood stream, takes up and destroys bacteria and other invaders of the body

Tonsils

Filters bacteria and aids in the formation of WBCs

Tonsillectomy

Surgical removal of the tonsils

Erythrocytes

A red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which functions in transporting oxygen in the circulatory system.

4 months

How long RBCs live for

WBCs

Live only for a couple of days

Thrombocytes

Aid in the coagulation of blood

Neutrophils

Protect against infection, aid in phagocytosis

Lymphocytes

Provide immune capacity

B cell

Identifies foreign antigens, differentiates into antibody producing plasma cells

T cell

cells in the thymus that regulate the action of the immune system

Monocytes

First line of defense in the inflammatory process; phagocytosis

Eosinophils

Destroy parasitic organisms; key role in allergic reactions

Basophils

Key role in releasing histamines

Antibodies

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.

Antigens

Bad, invading cells

Tuberculosis

Can be transmitted via droplets; infectious disease

Prosthesis

Artificial body part

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa

Syphilis

Chronic venereal disease with lesions that can affect many organs

Puerperal sepsis

Severe infection of the genital tract during postpartum period; caused due to an abortion complication; childbed fever

Long bones

Radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula

Short bones

Carpals and tarsals

Irregular bone

Vertebrae

Flat bones

Pelvis and scapula

Sesamoid

Patella/knee cap

Ball in socket joints

Shoulder and hip

Hinge joint

Elbow and knee

Pivot joint

Atlas/asix bones, top of the neck

Saddle joint

Thumb joint

Condyloid joint

Wrist

Gliding joint

Intercarpal joints

Skin

Largest organ of the body

Ligaments

Attach bone to bone

Tendons

Attach muscle to bone

Hematuria

Blood in the urine

Glycosuria

Sugar in the urine

Ethics

Right and wrong conduct

Negligence

Most common type of medical tort liability

Defendant

Person being sued

Abandonment

Withdrawal of the physician from the case of a patient w/out reasonable notice to patient

Assault

Unlawful threat or attempt to do bodily harm to another

Reasonable care

actions by a healthcare worker that are considered reasonable as compared to healthcare workers in the same area (field)

Malpractice

Negligence by a professional person

Crime

An act that violates criminal law

Breach

Breaking of a law, promise or duty

Empathy

Ability to see things from another person's point of view

Statute of limitations

Time established for filing law suits

Subpoena

Writ that commands a witness to appear at a trial or proceeding to give testimony

Tort

Wrong committed against another person or their property

False imprisonment

Holding or detaining a person against their will

Invasion of privacy

Violating a person's right not to have his or her name, photo, or private affairs exposed or made public without giving consent

Felony

Major crime for which greater punishment is imposed other than a misdemeanor

Plaintiff

One who institutes a lawsuit

Will

Legal statement of how a person's property is to be distributed after death

Privileged communication

Information given by a patient to medical personnel which can't be disclosed w/out consent of person who gave it

Law

Rule of conduct made by a government body

Negligence

Failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances

Consent

Permission granted by a person voluntarily and in their right mind

Defamation

Injuring the name and reputation of another person by making false statements to a thirt person

Contract

Agreement between two or more parties for the doing or not doing of a definite thing

Incompetence

Lack of physical or mental fitness

Judgment

Final decision of the court in an action or lawsuit

Respondeat superior

Latin for "Responsiblity of the employer to respond for the actions of the employee"

Non compos mentis

Latin for "Not of a sound mind"

Emancipated minor

Minor who is no longer under the care, custody or supervision of a parent or guardian

Medical grievance committee

An impartial panel established to listen to and investigate a patient's complaints about medical care or excessive fees

Res Gestae

Latin for "Things done; deeds"

Deposition

Testimony of a witness under oath and written down before trial for possible use when case goes to trial

Civil law

Statute that enforces private rights and liabilities differentiated from criminal law

Breach of duty

Violation or omission of a legal or moral duty

Battery

Deliberate physical attack upon a person

Qui facit per alium facit per se

Latin for "He who acts for/through another acts for himself"

Bioethics

The study of moral issues, questions, and problems arising in the practice of medicine and in biomedical research.

Expert testimony

Statement given concerning some scientific, technical or professional matter by an expert

Contributory negligence

Patient's failure to act prudently and reasonably or doing that which a reasonable person would not do under similar circumstances

Assumption of risk

Consent to treatment based on full understanding of all possible risks of unpreventable results of that treatment.

Medical etiquette

Conduct, courtesy, and manners customarily used in a medical office by medical professions

Fraud

Deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain

Suspension

To interrupt or discontinue a lawsuit temporarily with the intention to resume at a later date or to ask for a continuance

Res judicata

Latin for "Things decided"

Proximate cause

That which in natural and continuous sequence, unbroken by any new independent cause, produce an event, and without which the injury would not have occurred

Res ipsa loquitor

Latin for "the thing speaks for itself"; Common experience permits a reasonable inference from the occurrence itself; substitutes for causation; doesn't decide ultimate negligence, but allows it

Breach of contract

Failure to achieve an agreed upon result

Narcotic license

Physician must have this to dispense, prescribe or adminster a controlled substance

Peer review

Medical research is often published in medical journals that are evaluated by members of the medical community through a process known as

Admissions review

Under the Peer Review Improvement Acts of 1982, Peer Review Organizations are responsible for the review of the appropriateness and necessity of putting a patient in the hospital by a process known as

Forgery

Fraudulent signature

Bioethics

Use of fetal tissue transplantation for research might involve a decision based upon_________

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