chemical reactions do what?
produce new substances
everyday equations describe?
chemical equations do what?
describe chemical reactions
a skeleton equation does NOT show?
the relative formulas of the reactants and products
what symbols are used in equations correctly?
(aq), dissolved in water
a catalyst is?
not used up in a reaction
correct skeleton equation of: solid phosphorus combines with oxygen gas to form diphosphoros pentoxide?
P(s) + 0₂(g) -> P₂0₅(s)
what is NOT true about chemical reactions?
new atoms are formed as products (NOT)
chemical equations must be balanced to satisfy
the law of conversation of mass
the product of the combo reaction is Ba(OH)₂. if one of the reactants if H₂O₂, what is the other?
in order for the reaction 2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl₃ + 3H₂ to occur, what must be true?
Al must be above H on the activity series
In a combustion reaction, one of the reactants is?
True or False: All Chemical reactions can be classified as one of give general types
This yeilds to? RbOH + H₃PO₄→...
Rb₃PO₄ + 3H₂O
T or F about decomposition of a simple binary compound: the products are unpredictable
What substance produces carbon dioxide and water in a complete combustion?
What is the correctly balanced equation for the incomplete combustion of heptene, C₇H₁₄?
C₇H₁₄ + 7O₂→7CO +7H₂O
what type of reaction is: 2Fe + 3Cl₂→2FeCl₃ ?
what type of reaction is: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)→ MgCl₂(aq) +H₂(g)
single replacement reaction
what type of reaction: 2C₃H₇OH +9O₂→ 6CO₂ + 8H₂O
a double-replacement reaction takes palce when aqueous cobalt(III) chloride reacts with aqueous lithium hydroxide. One of the products of this reaction is?
what is conserved in the reaction: H₂(g) + Cl₂(g)→ 2HCl(g)
mass, moles, molecules, and volume
what are conserved in EVERY chemical reaction?
mass and atoms
in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products is equal to?
equal to the mass of the reactants
in any chemical reaction, what quantities are preserved?
mass and number of atoms
the first step in most stoichiometry problems is to?
convert given quantities to moles
T or F: the total number of reactants and total number of products in: C₅H₁₂ + 8O₂→5CO₂ + 6H₂O are 9 moles of reactants chemically changed into 11 moles of product
T or F: is 2 g S + 3 g O₂ →2 g SO₃ the correct interpretation of 2S(g) + 3O₂(g)→2SO₃(g)?
which type of stoichiometric calculation does not require the use of the molar mass?
which conversion factor do you use to first calculate the number of grams of Co₂ prodcued by the reaction of 50.6 g of CH₄ with O₂? CH₄ + CO₂ +2H₂O
1 mol of CH₄ / 16.0 g CH₄
T or F: 1 mole fo water is produced for every mole of carbon dioxide produced in 3NaHCO₃ +C₆H₈O₇→3CO₂ +3H₂O + Na₃C₆H₅O₇
when 0.1 mole of calcium reacts with 880 g of water, 2.24 L of hydrogen gas form at STP. How would the amount of hydrogen produced change if the volume of water was decreased to 440 mL (440 g)?
the volume of hydrogen would be the same
T or F about limiting and excess reagents: The reactant that has the smallest given mass is the limiting reagent.
T or F: The limiting reagent is CO and 8.0 mol Fe will be formed is 12 mol CO and 12 mole Fe₂O₃ are allowed to react in 3Co +Fe₂O₃→2Fe + 3CO₂
what is the limiting reagent in : 2H₂ + O₂→2H₂O
50 molecules of O₂
T or F about "yield" : The actual yield may be different from the theoretical yield because insufficient limiting reagent was used.
T or F: Conservation of mass a reason why actual yield is less than theoretical yield.
according to the kinetic theory, collisions between molecules in a gas are?
what is the kinetic theory?
the particles of a gas move independently from each other. the particles in a gas move rapidly. the particles in a gas are relatively far apart. ALL
particles in a gas are best described as:
small, hard spheres with insignificant volumes
T or F about movement of particles in a gas: Particles usually travel uninterrupted indefinitely.
what instrument is normally used to measure atmospheric pressure?
what is the SI unit of pressure?
what is one standard atmosphere of pressure in kilopascals?
Standard conditions when working with gases are defined as?
0° C and 101.3 kPa
how does the atmospheric pressure at altitudes below sea level compare with atmospheric pressure at sea level?
the atmospheric pressure below sea level is higher
what causes gas pressure in a container such as a helium balloon?
the simultaneous collisions of fast moving particles in the container
the pressure of a gas in a container is 152 mm Hg, this is equivalent to ___ atm.
what happens to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter as the temperature of the sample is increased?
the average kinetic energy increases
when gas is heated, what happens?
some of the absorbed energy is converted to potential energy, and some is converted to kinetic energy
consider an iron cube and an aluminum cube. if the two cubes were at the same temperature, how would the average kinetic energy of the particles in iron compare with the average kinetic energy of the particles in aluminum?
the average kinetic energy of the aluminum particles would be greater
which states of matter can flow?
gases and liquids only
what happens to the temp of liquid as it evaporates?
which are the first particles to evaporate from a liquid?
particles with the highest kinetic energy
what happens to the rate of evaporation of a liquid as the liquid is cooled?
why does a liquids rate of evaporation increase when the liquid is heated?
more molecules have enough energy to overcome the attractive forces holding them in the liquid
what liquid evaporates the fastest?
water at 0°C
in a dynamic equilibrium between the liquid state and the gas state, what is true about evaporation?
it is equal to the rate of condensation
if a liquid is sealded in a container and kept at constant temp, how does its vapor pressure change over time?
it increases at first, then remains constant
if energy is added to a boiling liquid, what happens to the temperature of the liquid?
it does not change
water could be made to boil at 105° C instead of 100°C by ___.
increasing the external pressure
the normal boiling point of chloroform, which has a higher vapor pressure than water at 100C is ___.
lower than the normal boiling point of water
most solids are?
dense and difficult to compress
crystals are classified into how many different crystal systems?
how do crystal systems differ?
in the angles between faces and the number of edges of equal length
what element has the ability to undergo sublimation?
which of the following is an example of a phase? pressure, water vapor, temp, triple point
how are the conditions of pressure and temp, at which two phases coexist in equilibrium, shown on a phase diagram?
by a line separating the phases
why is a gas easier to compress then a liquid or solid?
the volume of a gas's particles is small compared to the overall volume of the gas