CSET Vis/Prf Arts Art-1

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Basics, Principles, Elements: color, line, shape, texture, space; Interpreting Art; Timeline

Art is the process of purposefully...

... arranged elements
that appeal to
aesthetic and emotional senses.

4 of 8 Fundamental principles of art:

1. Balance
2. Contrast
3. Emphasis
4. Pattern

Other 4 of the 8
fundamental principles of art

5. Unity
6. Perspective
7. Space
8. Color

>> Principles of Art <<

Principles of Art

Balance refers to:

A sense of visual stability in a composition

Balance
> Harmonious arrangement of elements
creates a feeling of _____

equilibrium

Balance
> Symmetrical compositions give the feeling that the
_____ is equally distributed. This is called _____ balance.

weight
formal

Balance
> The classical appearance of formality is one of:

symmetry

Balance
> Asymmetry occurs when there is a
visual _____ or pull to one _____ of the composition.

emphasis
side

Balance
> Asymmetry is sometimes called:

Informal balance

Contrast

Represents 2 things that are opposite

Contrast is used to help depict 2 dramatic differences b/c

it helps make objects become
apparent to the viewer

Contrast is used to help make _____ become _____ to the viewer

objects
apparent

Contrast
> Examples

* Heavy & light
* Curved or straight
* Positive and negative

Emphasis
> Draws your eye to a:

Visual focal point

Emphasis
> Artists use emphasis to help an object
stand ___ and grab your _____

out
attention

Emphasis is the
_____ of interest

center

Pattern

Objects in a composition
that are repeated

Pattern
> Regular patterns with easily ID'ed _____
are used so the viewer can visually _____
what may appear _____

features
recognize
next

Pattern
> Random pattern: No exact predicted _____,
but the viewer CAN generally _____
what may appear next

design
predict

Pattern
> Artists create by repeating what 3 elements:

* Shapes
* Colors
* Lines

Pattern
> Example: Monet's Water Lilies, the repeated pattern is:

Groups of water lilies

Unity refers to the sense that all components of a composition...

... belong together

Unity
> Technically

* Elements of art, shape, line, color, appear to fit together
* Viewer has no feeling for the need to complete, delete or change

Unity creates a sense that the artwork is
self-____ and has ____ of its own,
whole and complete

contained
life

Perspective: Linear
* This is a technique for representing:

3-D objects on a flat surface

Perspective: Linear
> Invented during the _____
to give paintings a _____ appearance

Renaissance
realistic

Perspective: Linear
> Uses math principles to give paintings a _____ appearance

realistic

Perspective: Linear
> How it works

* Converging lines meet at a vanishing point
* Lines of buildings/objects are slanted to make them appear at a distance
* Human eye perceives smaller objects are at a distance

Perspective: Linear
> Example from book

Basilica San Lorenzo

Perspective: Atmospheric/Aerial
> Used to create:

Depth and dimension

Perspective: Atmospheric/Aerial
> 4 Techniques used to reproduce effects of distant objects

* Overlapping
* Color
* Size
* Contrast

Perspective: Atmospheric/Aerial
> Example-1
. Darker objects appear to be _____ when using
lighter and _____ colors for distant objects

closer
duller

Perspective: Atmospheric/Aerial
> Example-2
. In landscapes, lighter objects lose _____ and clarity as they appear _____ away

focus
farther

>> Elements of Art <<

Elements of Art

5 Elements of Art

1. Color
2. Line
3. Shape
4. Texture
5. Space

Color is...

... visible light reflected off objects

Color can be used in a composition to create a symbolic representation of 2 things:

* Mood
* Emotion

Color
> Red, orange, yellow
> People gazing at compositions using these colors tend to feel:

* Their body temperature rise

What are the warm colors, red, orange, yellow, symbolic of?

* Sun
* Heat
* Fire

Color
> Green, blue, purple
> People gazing at compositions using these colors tend to feel:

* Relaxed
* Calm
* Peaceful

Color's 3 qualities are:

1. Hue
2. Value
3. Intensity

Hue is what we think of as

color

>> i.e. a particular point on the spectrum

Does hue address dark/light or dull/bright?

Neither

Is hue sequenced like a rainbow?

Yes

Rainbows contain primary
or
primary & secondary colors?

Primary & secondary

Primary colors
> What are they?

* Red
* Yellow
* Blue

Which colors are the foundation of the color wheel?

Primary colors

Secondary colors
> Name them

* Orange
* Green
* Violet

Secondary colors
> How are they created?

By mixing 2 primary colors

Tertiary colors
> How are they created?

By mixing primary & secondary colors
> Red + Green = Brown
> Yellow + Violet = Brown

Tertiary colors
> Result of mix

Secondary becomes grayish or muted yielding
> Variation of the secondary color

Complementary colors

* Pairs of colors opposite of each other on color wheel
* Do not share any characteristics

Complementary colors
> Result of mixing

Neutral color such as gray or brown

>> They say: purple + yellow = gray

>> My color wheel:
. purple + yellow = brown
. orange + blue = gray

Complementary colors
> Use in composition yields _____
which can be interpreted as _____ and _____

contrast
vibrant
stimulating

Value
> Describes:

Lightness or darkness of color

Value
> Range is from:

White to Black

Value of a color is changed by adding either ____ or ____

white
black

Value
> Artists use to create _____

mood

Value
> Example: dark colors can suggest:

* Melancholy
* Gloom
* Mystery
* Foreboding

Intensity describes the:

brilliance or dullness of color

Intensity
> Example: impact of bright colors is associated with:

* Stronger emotions
* Heightened energy

Intensity
> Example: subtler/dull colors are associated with a:

weaker, anesthetized
state of energy

Line
> Characteristics of

* Continuous mark
* Can change:
> direction
> length
> width

Line
> Multiple lines joined together form a:

Shape

Line
> Can be used to create
at least 3 things:

* Outline
* Silhouette
* Contour

Line
> Can be used to define
the _____ of a form
to lead your eye in a certain _____

edges
direction

Lines can be real or _____ and
their possibilities are _____.

implied
endless

Lines can be:

Straight Curved
Jagged Diagonal
Horizontal Vertical
Wavy Parallel
Perpendicular Zigzag
* Dashed

Line
> Horizontal lines can suggest:

* A state of rest
* Continuity
* Stability

>> Object that are parallel to the earth are often at rest (gravity)

Line
> Horizontal lines can also give a sense of ____

space

Line
> Vertical lines communicate a sense of:

* Strength
* Rigidity
* Height

Line
> Vertical lines are often used to suggest:

* Spirituality
* Reaching toward the sky

Line
> Diagonal lines often communicate an:

Opposition or movement

Line
> Curved lines communicate a:

Sensual or softening quality

Line
> Example of symbolism in American Gothic by Wood

Many vertical lines extend upward to sky/toward heavens, including the pitch fork

Line
> American Gothic
> Considered a chronicle of history of mid-western moral ____ during the Great ______

values
Depression

Line
> American Gothic
> Rigid, upright characters a symbol of the bond between:

God and hard work

Line
> Horizontal church roof lines are symbolic of:

Inseparable stability
that the church and God
can provide during
difficult socioeconomic times

Shape (form & contour)
> Shape and form help to define _____ in a piece of art.

objects

Shape (form & contour)
> Often defined by a continuous _____ that _____ to create a closed shape.

line
meets

Shape (form & contour)
> Contour lines are used to create _____

dimension

Shape (form & contour)
> Has 2 dimensions:

* Height
* Width

Shape (form & contour)
> Form has 3 dimensions:

* Height
* Width
* Depth

Shape (form & contour)
> Geometric vs organic shape measures

* Geometric: uniform measures
* Organic: irregular, relatively, I guess

Shape (form & contour)
> Repeated shapes and forms create _____

patterns

Shape (form & contour)
> Example of the use of form:

* Mary Cassatt "The Bath"
* Circular contour shapes
> Figures > basin > pitcher

Shape (form & contour)
> Example of the use of form-2:

Rounded, natural forms
illustrate clear, crisp lively patterns

Texture
> Describes the way a composition might _____ or the way it might appear to _____ with our eyes

feel
feel

Texture
> in 3-dimensional art can be touched
> in 2-dimensional art is only:

perceived
> i.e. one gets a sense of how an object might feel

Texture
> Example:

Collage
> Artists still use color, line, and shape to simulate the object

Space
> Artists refer to _____
within the _____ of a composition

space
boundaries

Space
> Helps a composition look like it has ____
and give artwork a feeling of _____

form
depth

Space
> 2 kinds:

* Positive space
* Negative space

Space
> Negative space

* Space between or around the object
* In B/W:
> object is white
> space is black
>> Think reversal or photo negative

Space
> Positive space

* Space occupied by the object
* Think silhouette

>> Interpreting Art <<

Interpreting Art

4 Questions to ask when analyzing art
1. Content or focal point

1. What dominant object stands out
as you 1st look at the composition

4 Questions to ask when analyzing art
2. Mood

2. What is your 1st emotional response
to the composition?

4 Questions to ask when analyzing art
3. Point

3. What do believe the artist is trying to convey?

4 Questions to ask when analyzing art
4. Context

4. What is the historical, cultural, or social context?

4a. What is the time, style, & place of the composition?

Elements of Art
> Consider the composition &
the responses to the 4 basic questions
in terms of the elements of art:

Color Line
Shape Texture
* Space

Principles of Art
> Now consider the responses in terms of the principles of art:

* Balance/Symmetry
Contrast Emphasis
Pattern Unity
* Perspective: Linear
* Perspective: Atmospheric/Aerial

>> Color & Shape were considered with the "elements of art"

When considering elements & principles of art notice if there are:

similarities to the principles

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #1

1. How are the lines in the composition arranged?
> Horizontally
> Vertically
> Diagonally

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #2

2. How is color used to show:
> Contrast
> Highlight an area
> Create a mood

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #3

3. What are the spatial relationships?
> Are objects far or near?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #4

4. Where are the light and dark areas in the composition?
> How does light enhance directionality?
> Does it "lead" the viewer?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #5

5. What types of shapes are used?
> Geometric?
> How do the various shapes affect the composition as a whole?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #6

6. What textures are used in the pictures?
> What feelings do the textures convey?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #7

7. Does the composition include depth, linear perspective, or atmospheric perspective?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #8

8. Is the composition balanced (symmetrical or asymmetrical)?
> How is the balance achieved?

Only 9 more questions to consider...
> Question #9

9. What elements are repeated?
> Do the various elements contrast with or complement each other?

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