Science Flashcards

48 terms by BRooney98

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astronomy

the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space

axis

an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the north and south poles, about which Earth rotates

revolution

the movement of an object around another object

orbit

the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space

latitude

a measurement of distance from the equator, expressed in degrees north or south

solstice

The two days of the year on which the noon sun is directly overhead at either 23.5 degrees South or 23.5 degrees North

equinox

the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun

vernal equinox

the day of the year that marks the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere

autumnal equinox

The day of the year that marks the beginning of fall in the Northern hemisphere

phase

one of the different shapes of the moon as seen from Earth

solar eclipse

the blocking of sunlight to earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and earth

umbra

the darkest part of a shadow

penumbra

the part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part

lunar eclipse

the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and the moon

tide

The rise and fall of the level of water in the ocean

gravity

attractive force between two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them

spring tide

a tide with the greatest difference between low and high tides

neap tide

a tide with the least difference between low and high tides

nuclear fusion

the process by which hydrogen atoms join together to form helium, releasing energy

core

The central part of the sun, where nuclear fusion takes place

photosphere

the inner layer of the suns atmosphere

chromosphere

The middle layer of the sun's atmosphere

corona

outer layer of the sun's atmosphere

solar wind

a stream of electrically charged particles produced by the sun's corona

sunspots

areas of gas on the sun's surface that are cooler than the gases around them

prominences

A loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions

solar flares

an explosion of hydrogen gas from the sun's surface that occurs when the loops in sunspot regions suddenly connects

continental drift

the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface

fossil

a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock

mid-ocean ridge

an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary

sonar

a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves

deep-ocean trench

a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle

subduction

the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary

sea-floor spreading

the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor

focus

The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

epicenter

the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

seismograph

a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth

magnitude

The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

Mercalli scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause

Richter Scale

a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph

moment magnitude scale

a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

seismic waves

vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake

P waves

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground

S waves

A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

surface waves

a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface

rotation

the spinning motion of a planet on its axis

eclipse

the partial or total blocking of one object in space by another

Pangaea

the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents

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