Freud founded this discipline who focused on sexual & aggressive instincts. It focuses on how the unconcious mind effects our behaviours and nerosies.
Carl Rogers (person centred counselling 1902-1987), Maslow (heirarchy of needs 1908-1970).
Eriksons driving force in psychological life was
Adlers driving force in psychological life was
Feelings of inferiority
Jungs driving force in psychological life was
Spirituality & collective unconcious
This was part of freuds psychoanalytic concept and describes the reality principle, the person society see's, Freud believed it was the secondary thinking process. On the iceberg diagram this is just under the surface, sharing a space with the preconcious.
Part of Freuds psychoanalytic concept, this was the smallest accessible area of the individuals psyche. It represents the tip of the iceberg and is the only area readily accessible to the outside world.
This symbolises material which is just beneath the surface of awareness and is not as easy to access as the concious but easier to access than the unconcious.
This area of the psyche is well below the surface of the iceberg and is difficult to retrieve according to Freud. It is this area he believed had the most affect on the health and behaviour of his patients.
This is the pleasure principle of Freuds theory and is involved in the primary process of thinking. It is below the surface of the iceberg, beside the unconcious, being pushed down by the ego. I like to think of this as the naughty little devil in the cartoons that sits on the left shoulder!
This is what governs an individuals morals according to Freud, it forms (at least in boys in Freuds opinion) from identifying with the father in order to resolve the oedipal complex. This area of the psyche spans the height of the iceberg with some of it being below the water out of reach and some of it being at the surface keeping everything in check. I think of this as the little angel sitting on the right shoulder in cartoons.
One of Freuds 5 stages of psychosexual development. This phases is from birth to eighteen months and involves gratification from things associated with the mouth, for example suckling.
One of Freuds 5 stages of development of psychosexual development. This phases is from around three years of age to around six years of age and involved gratification from retaining or excreting faeces (NICE). This is the phase during which the child develops a relationship with authority.
One of Freuds 5 stages of psychosexual development. This phases is from around 6 (although I've seen my three year old show signs of this). Freud believed this to be a crucial point in development involving the oedipal conflict and castration anxiety (in boys) which affected development of the super ego.
One of Freuds 5 stages of development of psychosexual development. This phase is from around eleven years of age and involves social and intellectual development.
One of Freuds 5 stages of psychosexual development. This phases is from childhood onwards and is a fully functioning sexually aware individual.
One of Freuds defence mechanisms, means to push feelings in to the unconcious or to avoid dealing with them.
One of Freuds defence mechanisms, means to project inner feelings on to others, instead of being angry with yourself be angry at someone else. Can also be used to describe displacing feelings for one person onto another, e.g. anger towards the parent be directed to the teacher.
One of Freuds defence mechanisms, means to withdraw from reality.
One of Freuds defence mechanism, means to redirect libido to personal or culture roles, or something like art or music.
Part of Freuds psychoanalytic theory, people use these to defend themselves against events or beliefs which may upset the balance between the ego, id and super ego thus causing anxiety.
The patient who coined the term Talk Therapy through experience free association. Discovered that the reason she had an aversion to drinking water wazs because she had once watched her nanny allow her dog to drink from a drinking glass, she founds this 'abhorrent' (I like that word lol)!
Aimed at catharsis through free association which allows interpretation of the unconcious. This is a long term, intensive costly type of therapy. It is also dependant on the therapists interpretation and is there directly affected by the therapist.
This therapy focuses on present day problems and aims to strengthen the ego through encouragement and guidance.
This theory focuses on the significance of conscious, subjective experience believing everyone is unique. It believes people are capable of autonomy and personal growth and that behaviour is goal directed and purposeful. People are innately, basically driven to fulfillment. It is a holistic, positive approach.
The top of Maslows hierarchy of needs, signifies becoming all one is capable of becoming, fulfilling ones potential.
Maslows Heirarchy of needs
The pyramidial structure of needs created by maslow. At the bottom is physiological needs. follwed by safety needs, followed by the need to belong, followed by the need for self esteem and culminating at it's apex in self actualisation.
Food, water, sex (death)
Shelter, money (neurosis)
Status, respect, adequacy (deep seated inferiority)
Criticisms of Maslow
Used biographical information to base his theory on which some same is not ecologically valid. For example Einstein, who he studied, may display very different needs from many others.
Maintenance of balance (priority) in Maslows theory.
Strive for personal for personal growth and or fulfillment. In Maslows theory.
This humanisitic theorist believed in peak experiences such as those experienced during meditation, listening to music or watching a beautiful sunset (among other things which would need an 18 certificate to discuss here lol).
This humanistic theorist focused on flow, believing people seek activities in which they can get lost such as rock, climbing, poetry or art to acheive the loss of awareness of oneself. He believes this to be the root of human happiness.
Kelly's personal construct theory
This humanistic theorist uses his repertory grid to examine how a person views the world and the people in it by analysing the inner language they use (constructs). The results of this can be used to 'fix' any issues which may be preventing them from relating to those around them effectively. His theory uses fixed role therapy (so acting out a character) in order to produce a 'happier' person.
He is the key figure in the humanistic perspective who believes that people have an innate tendancy to grow. The key concepts in his theory are subjective experience, self actualisation and the self. His theory uses person centred counselling as it's approach to therapy.
Unconditonal positive regard
Part of the aim of the Rogerian person centred approach, involves developing immovable feelings of optimism and respect for another person.
Unconditional positive self regard
Part of the aim of Rogerian person centred approach, helping people accept themselves for what they are not what others would like the person to be.
In Roger's person centred approach the therapist aims to provide a non-judgmental attitude of warmth and respect.
Uses encounter groups, gestalt therapy and psychosynthesis to create unconditional positive regard.
Form of therapy which involves a group of around twelve people and a 'facilitator' acceptance and non-evaluation are emphasized within an atmosphere of trust, explanations and judgements are discouraged. Members are free to act out their feelings an are encouraged to only do what feels right for them.
Involves alot of dramatization in order to access the clients feeling in the 'here and now', using methods like role play, shouting and even screaming at the therapist to help unblock emotions. It discourages analysis of the why as this is believed to avoid actual feelings by intellectualizing them. It's creator Fritz Perls was famous for saying 'Lose your mind and come to your senses'.
Practitioners of this therapy (one of the main stays of Rogerian therapy) see themselves as guides, the aim is to increase spiritual awareness and help visualisation of desired actions and wishes. It aims to aid in establishing a balance in the intellectual, emotional and spiritual areas of the clients life.
Common principles in different humanistic methods.
A focus on growth and development in the here and now, rather than the past. The attempt to empathise with and understand the clients experience but not to interpret it. Engaging in an authentic manner (facilitating the client but also responding genuinely as a person during the theraputic encounter). Allowing and encouraging clients to express their feelings overtly. Encouraging clients to take responsibility for change and their own feelings and actions.
" To care for another person, I must be able to understand his and her world, as if I were inside it"...
Recovery comes from greater congruence between real and idealised self.
Holistic, supported by research (with good efficiency return), person centred, subjective.
Unscientific, subjective, vague concepts, questions on hierarchy.
Unconcious explained, humans can be generalised, huge impact on discipline, drew attention to psychological disorders.
Unscientific and untestable, poor research evidence (mostly freuds own clients and personal analysis), vague, culturally relative, does it work?
Humanists focus on the insider perspective - the therapist guides the patient to come to their own understanding of experience. Psychoanalysis also uses insider perspective but the emphasis is more on the interpretation of anxiety by the therapist.
This is encouraged in psychosynthesis and involves the study of experiences in which the sense of self extends beyond the individual or personal to encompass spiritual aspects of being.
This is one of Freuds defence mechanisms and describe when a person outwardly display characteristics opposite to their inner feeling. So for example someone who has strong aggressive feelings may outwardly show an unassertive mannerism.