The _____ bond forms when electrons transfer completely from one atom to another, resulting in oppositely charged species that attract each other via electrostatic interaction.
work and energy have the same unit; the _ _ _ _ _
formula for electric potential energy
k, is the symbol for the electrostatic constant, also known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
electric potential energy
U is the symbol for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _+_ _ _ _ _ _ , which is the stored energy a charge has based on it's location in an electric field; work is done whenever an object moves with/against the field
In an ionic bond, if Q represents a cation, q represents the charge on the _ _ _ _ _, and it is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
negative (sign on q is negative in an ionic bond)
The electrostatic potential energy in an ionic bond is positive or negative? (Why?)
T or F With electrostatic energy, the negative sign is frequently dropped and only the magnitude of the electrostatic energy is used.
The greater the magnitude of electrostatic potential, the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the ionic bond.
If r is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
If Q or q is big, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
If Q or q is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
If r is small, the ionic bond is weaker or stronger?
the energy required to separate 1 mol of the ions of an ionic compound; it is equal in magnitude to the negative energy in the ionic bonds
The electric force between charged objects is given by ________+_________, and depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
This is the magnitude of the charges on a proton and an electron plus the unit
This is the name of the force particles exert on each other because of their electric charge; given by Coulomb's Law
The value of Coulomb's constant, k, is ________
electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
Law of Gravitation
(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
gravitational force is weaker compared to the much stronger electrostatic force because _ is larger than _
Newton's second law
f=ma, A net force acting on an object will cause that object to accelerate in the direction of the net force.
Newton's first law (law of inertia)
An object in motion (or at rest) will tend to stay in motion (or at rest) until it is acted upon by an outside force.
Law of Inertia
The other name for Newton's first law
Newton's Third Law
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's Third Law
Which law applies to propulsion and explains why rockets work even in the vacuum of space.
What happens to electrostatic force if you double q1?
What happens to electrostatic force if r is cut in half?
(chemistry) This bond results when there is a sharing of electrons between two atoms, resulting in the overlap of their electron orbitals.
type of bond where electron density is in the same plane as the bond. Constitutes a single bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of orbitals
T or F It does not matter what shapes the orbitals have or what types they are. They can be s orbitals or p orbitals or hybrid orbitals. What makes each of these a sigma bond is that the orbital overlap occurs directly between the nuclei of the atoms.
T or F? An sp3 hybridized carbon is a triple bond?
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp3?
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp?
Number of hybrid orbitals in sp2?
Number of atoms bonded to sp2 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
Number of atoms bonded to sp carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
Number of atoms bonded to sp3 carbon? (no unbonded electron pairs)
shape of sp3 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
shape of sp hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
shape of sp2 hybridized? (no unbonded electron pairs)
all possible shapes of sp hybridized?
trigonal planar, bent
all possible shapes of sp2 hybridized?
tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, bent
all possible shapes of sp3 hybridized?
Hybridization of the triple bond?
Are hybridized bonds sigma bonds? or pi bonds?
Hybridization of the double bond?
What color(s) are pi bonds?
Is blue a hybridized orbital? If it is, what is the hybridization?
red, blue, green
What color(s) are sp hybridized orbitals?
what color(s) are pi bonds?
red, blue, green
what color(s) are sigma bonds?
how many of the bonds are sigma bonds?
object (inertia) action (sum of the forces) reaction (negative F)
a structure that uses electron-dots and dashes to show how electrons are arranged in molecules. Central atom is the least electronegative.
The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure
a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)
the ion NH4 derived from ammonia
a covalent hydride of boron
any binary compound formed by the union of hydrogen and other (generally less electronegative) elements
a compound consisting of hydrogen and one other more electronegative element that is not a metal. (H2O) is an example, so is (HCl)
a compound containing the ion BH4−. Such compounds are mainly used as reducing agents in organic synthesis.
The name for an ion of Br- or for a chemical compound containing that ion.
A compound containing a negatively charged carbon atom. A carbon-based anion.
positive charge resides on C; highly reactive; occurs in SN1 and E1 reactions; electrophilic
Compound with a carbon double-bonded to nitrogen (C=N).
a colorless odorless gas used as a fuel
a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms
(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds. Also called unshared pairs or lone pairs
(consider the bonds in the atom above) Name for the valence electrons that participate in bonding
(consider the bonds in the atom above) The bonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?
(consider the bonds in the atom above) The nonbonding electrons are represented by dashes or dots?
lewis acid (most inclusive definition)
Electron pair acceptor that may or may not donate a proton
lewis base (most inclusive definition)
Electron pair donor that may or may not accept a proton
arrhenius acid (most specific definition)
Electron pair acceptor & proton donor, that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water
arrhenius base (most specific definition)
Electron pair donor & proton acceptor that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
bronsted lowry acid (intermediate definition)
Electron pair acceptor that is a proton donor
bronsted lowry base (intermediate definition)
Electron pair donor that is a proton acceptor
highest energy occupied molecular orbital
HOMO stands for
lowest energy unoccupied molecular orbital
LUMO stands for
(Lewis Acids/Bases) Between HOMO and LUMO which is "filled" prior to the formation of the lewis complex?
coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
T or F the dipole moment measures the swing of electrons back and forth between atoms
nonpolar (because dipole moment is the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments; which cancel in a tetrahedral molecule)
This molecule is polar or nonpolar? Why?
net dipole moment (the vector sum of the individual bond dipole moments do not cancel so water is a polar molecule)
What does the "up arrow" stand for?
Yes (because the molecules are too far apart)
T or F Dipole Dipole interactions are negligible in the gas phase. Why or why not?
Dispersion Forces (London Forces)
What intermolecular forces exist between noble gas atoms?
van der Waals forces
the two weakest intermolecular attractions- LDF interactions and dipole forces
the forces of attraction between molecules (general term)
ion-dipole interactions are not, dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces (london forces) are
What types of intermolecular forces are not van der Waals forces, what types are?
london forces, induced dipole interactions
The other 2 names for dispersion forces