pharm and toxicology

Created by attn1982 

Upgrade to
remove ads

104 terms

Antidote to insecticides (2)

Atropine (for sx)
Pralidoxime (for restoring AChE)

MOA of insecticide poisoning; specific drug example

AChE inhibition by organophosphates; parathion

Used to diagnose asthma; challenge test

Methacholine

Direct cholinomimetics for glaucoma (2)

Pilocarpine
Carbachol

Indirect cholinomimetics for glaucoma (2)

Echothiaphate
Physostigmine

Antidote for atropine overdose

Physostigmine

Cholinomimetic for diagnosis of MG

Edrophonium (tensilon test)

Indirect cholinomimetic for post-operative and neurogenic ileus, and urinary retention

Neostigmine

Direct cholinomimetic for post-operative and neurogenic ileus, and urinary retention

Bethanechol

2 drugs for MG (indirect cholinomimetics) + 1 other drug

Neostigmine
Pyridostigmine
Steroids
(Starring at New Pyramids -"effect of diplopia in MG")

Alzheimer's cholinomimetics (3)

Donepezil
Galantamine
Rivastigmine

Drug for motion sickness (muscarinic/antimuscarinic?)

Scopolamine (antimuscarinic)

Antimuscarinic for Parkinson's disease

Benztropine (park my benz)

Drug in eye drops to cause dilation (muscarinic/antimucarinic?)

Atropine; antimuscarinic

Antimuscarinic used for asthma

Ipratropium

Antimuscarinics used to reduce gastric acid production (peptic ulcer treatment)

Methscopolamine
Propantheline

Use of oxybutynin

Reduces urgency in mild cystitis; reduced bladder spasms

Atropine can be used in dementia (true/false?)

False. Will cause delirium

Atropine can be used if there's a GI obstruction (true/false?)

False. Will cause worse ileus

Atropine should not be used in kids with fever (true/false?)

True. Causes hyperthermia by itself

Atropine can cause flushing of the skin (true/false?)

True

Atropine should not be used in BPH (true/false?)

True. Will exacerbate urinary retention

Experimental ganglionic blocker

Hexamethonium

Drug blocking Ach synthesis and progression into vesicles

Vesamicol

Drug blocking choline entry into nerves to produce ACh

Hemicholinium

Drug blocking Dopa production from tyrosine

Metyrosine

Drug blocking NE production and packaging into vesicles from dopamine

Reserpine

3 drugs blocking reuptake of NE

Tricyclic anti-depressants
Cocaine
Amphetamines

3 drugs increasing release of NE from vesicles

Amphetamines
Ephedrine
Tyramine

Drug blocking release of NE from vesicles

Guanethidine

Better for heart stimulation (epinephrine/norepinephrine?)

Epinephrine (stimulates β receptors first, but also stimulate α); Norepinephrine stimulates α receptors more than β

Used more for septic shock (epinephrine/norepinephrine?)

Norepinephrine; reverses vasodilation without affecting heart too much

Function of D1 receptors

Relaxes muscles of renal vasculature -> ↑ renal perfusion (theoretically)

Effect of epinephrine of renal perfusion

Good sympathomimetic against cardiogenic shock

Dobutamine (stimulates β1 more than β2)

Dopamine only has effects on other receptors, apart from the D1 and D2 receptors (true/false?)

True. Activates β (more) and α receptors too, so inotropic and chronotropic

2 sympathomimetics for acute asthma (SABAs); selectively β2 agonists

Albuterol
Metaproterenol

Sympathomimetic used for narcolepsy

Amphetamine

2-in-one effect of cocaine vs. lidocaine use

Vasoconstricts as well as anesthetizes (no need for epinephrine, like with lidocaine)

Effect of norepinephrine on heart rate

↓ due to reflex bradycardia

MAO and use of α-methyldopa

α2-agonists (centrally acting)
Good for preeclampsia

Condition in which clonidine is especially useful

Renal disease with HTN

Norepinephrine has no β2 effect (true/false?)

True

4 groups of sx for β-blockers

CNS (sedation, sleep alteration) -> clouds hypoglycemic sx
Impotence
Cardiac (AV block, bradycardia)
Exacerbation of asthma

The 2 especially cardioprotective β-blockers

Carvedilol
Metoprolol

The 2 non-selective β and α-antagonists

Labetalol
Carvedilol

The 5 β1-selective antagonists

Atenolol
Betaxolol
Esmolol
Acebutolol
Metoprolol
(A BEAM)

2 α-blockers used for pheochromocytomas

Phentolamine
Phenoxybenzamine

Use α-blockers with β-blockers for pheochromocytomas (true/false?)

True, to combat both effects by epinephrine, BUT use α-blockers first to prevent ↑ blood pressure caused by β-blocking first (vasodilation is knocked out)

Irreversible α-blocker (phentolamine/phenoxybenzamine?)

Phenoxybenzamine

Drug used for depression with insomnia and low appetite

Mirtazapine. S/E are sedation and ↑ appetite

Antidote for acetaminophen

N-acetylcysteine

Antidote for salicylates

Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to alkalinize (or dialysis)

Antidote for amphetamines

Ammonium (chloride) to acidify

Antidote for antimuscarinics (e. g. atropine)

Physostigmine

Antidote for β-blockers

Glucagon

Antidote treatments for digitalis (4)

Anti-dig Fab fragments
Mg2+
Lidocaine
Normalize K+

Antidote for iron

Deferoxamine (iron defers to ~)

Antidote for copper

Penicillamine

Antidote for gold (2)

Penicillamine or dimercaprol

Antidote for arsenic (2)

Dimercaprol or penicillamine

Antidote for mercury

Dimercaprol

Antidote for lead (3)

Dimercaprol
Penicillamine
EDTA

2 antidote treatments for cyanide

Nitrite (for methemoglobin production) -> thiosulfate (for excretion)
Hydroxocobalamin

Antidote for methemoglobin (2)

Methylene blue
Vitamin C (antioxidant)

Antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning

100% oxygen

2 antidote drugs for methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication

Ethanol
Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

Antidote for opioids

Naloxone/naltrexone

Antidote for benzodiazepines

Flumazenil

Antidote for TCAs

Bicarbonate (alkalinization)

Antidote for heparin

Protamine (binds heparin)

Antidote for warfarin (2)

Vitamin K (slow)
Fresh-frozen plasma (fast)

Antidote for tPA or streptokinase

Aminocaproic acid

Antidote for theophylline

β-blockers

Antidote for cyclophosphamide

Mesna

Serotonin antagonist

Ondansetron (anti-emetic)

Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

Dexrasoxane

Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

Amifostine

5-FU overdose

Thymidine

Methotrexate overdose

Leucovorin

Pyridostigmine toxicity (for MG)

Scopolamine

Antidote for cyclosporin nephrotoxicity

Mannitol diuresis

Antidote for serotonin syndrome

Cyproheptadine (serotonin antagonist)

Antidote for neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Dantrolene

2 drugs causing coronary vasospasm

Sumatriptan
Cocaine

A drug causing positive Coombs test (hemolytic anemia)

Methyldopa

Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficiency patients (6)

Ibuprofen
Sulfonamines
Primaquine
Aspirin
Isoniazid
Nitrofurantoin
(Hemolysis IS PAIN!)

3 drugs causing megaloblastic anemia

Phenytoin
MTX
Sulfa drugs
(Having a blast with PMS)

3 drugs causing pulmonary fibrosis

Bleomycin
Bulsulfan
Amiodarone

Drug group causing acute cholestatic hepatitis

Macrolides

2 main culprits for pseudomembranous colitis

Clindamycin
Ampicillin

Drug causing Fanconi's syndrome

Expired tetracycline

Serious S/E of valproic acid

Hepatic necrosis

Serious S/E of halothanes

Hepatic necrosis

Drugs causing gynecomastia (5)

Spironolactone
Digitalis
Cimetidine
Alcohol (chronic)
Ketoconazole
(Some drugs create awesome knockers)

2 drugs causing hot flashes

Clomiphene
Tamoxifen

2 drugs causing hypothyroidism

Lithium
Amiodarone

Drug causing cinchonism

Quinine/quinidine

2 drugs causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Demeclocycline
Lithium

Drug group potentially causing tardive dyskinesia

Neuroleptics

3 drugs potentially causing seizures

Bupropion
Isoniazid
Imipemen (w/ cilastatin)

Drugs causing Parkinsonian sx

Chlorpromazine
Metoclopramide
Haloperidol
Reserpine

2 drugs causing osteoporosis

Corticosteroids
Heparin

Drugs causing Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Allopurinol
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Lamotrigine
Ethosuximide
Carbamazepine
Sulfa drugs
Penicillin
(Allot some Phen-Phen to the Lambs. Ethically, Carbs are like Sulfa in my Pen)

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set