Science Ecology Test Ch. 1, 2.1, 2.3, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2

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46 terms · chapters 1, 2.1, 2.3, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2 in a 6th grade science test

Mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit

Parasitism

a symbiotic relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is harmed

Abiotic

nonliving

Biotic

living

Photosynthesis

the production of energy rich molecules from light energy

Biosphere

the part of earth that supports life. it includes the top portion of earths crust, all the water on earths surface, and the atmosphere that surrounds earth.

Ecosystem

all the living organisms in an area and all the nonliving things in their environment

Ecology

the study of organisms and how they interact with their environment. ecologists are the scientists that study this.

Population

all the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species

Community

all the populations in an ecosystem

Competition

when two or more organisms seek the same resource at the same time. limits population size. most intense between organisms of the same species. also between different species.

Population Size

the size of a population. measured by population counts. trap-mark-release method is a method where you capture an organism, mark it, and release it and continue the process. sample count method is a rough estimate of how many organisms you have in a large area.

Limiting Factors

factors of an ecosystem that limit the population growth of a species. these include: living space, food amounts, organisms eating other organisms, mates,

Carrying Capacity

the largest number of individuals of one species an ecosystem can support over time

Biotic Potential

the highest rate of reproduction, under ideal conditions, of a population.

Exponential Growth

the larger a population becomes, the faster it grows

Producers

organisms that use outer energy to create energy-rich molecules

Consumers

organisms that can't create their own energy-rich molecules. they eat other organisms to gain energy.

Herbivores

organisms that eat plants

Omnivores

organisms that eat meat and plants

Carnivores

organisms that eat meat

Decomposers

organisms the help recycle once-living matter by breaking it down into simple, energy-rich substances

Food Chain

a way of showing how matter and energy move from one organism to another

Symbiosis

any close relationship between species. its is also a symbiotic relationship.

Commensalism

a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected

Niche

an organism's way of living

Predator

a consumer that captures and eats other consumers

Prey

an organism captured by the predator

Cooperation

two or more organisms working together to improve survival

Atmosphere

the air that surrounds earth

Soil

a mixture of mineral and rocks particles, the remains of dead organisms, water, and air. it is the topmost layer of earths crust. it's considered biotic and abiotic because it contains living and nonliving things inside

Sunlight

the energy source for almost all life on earth

Climate

an area's average weather conditions over time, including temperatures, rainfall or other precipitation, and wind. it helps determines the types of organisms that live there.

Chemosynthesis

the production of energy-rich nutrient molecules from chemicals

Hydrothermal Vent

a deep crack in the ocean floor through which molten magma can escape

Food Webs

a model that shows all the possible feeding relationships among the organisms in a community. it is made up of many food chains.

Energy Pyramids

shows the amount of energy available at each feeding level in an ecosystem

Reduce

reducing your use of natural resources

Reuse

using an item again without sending it through any processes first

Recycle

sending an item through a process to make a new item out of the old one. glass, metal, paper, and plastic can go through this process.

Biodiversity

the variety of life in an ecosystem. the common measure of this is the number of species that live in an area. more organisms live in the natural version of this than in the unnatural version.

Extinct Species

a species that used to be living on earth but doesn't live anymore

Endangered Species

a species that is at risk of going extinct

Threatened Species

a species that is at risk of becoming endangered

Habitat Loss

when a habitat is destroyed for some reason. some reasons are: humans building things in the place of habitat and natural causes such as forest fire or tornadoes.

Conservation Biology

the study of methods for protecting biodiversity

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