Micro Antibiotics

105 terms by krompala 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Name the primary uses of penicillin

gram+
syphillis

Name the primary uses of nafcillin

naf for staph

Name the primary uses of ampicillin + amoxicillin

gram+
gram- rods = HELPS (H flu, E coli, Listeria, Proteus, Salmonella)

Name the primary uses of piperacillin

Pseudomonas

Name the primary uses of 1st generation cephalosporins

gram+
PEcK = Proteus, E coli, Klebsiella

Name the primary uses of 2nd generation cephalosporins

gram+
HEN PEcKS = H flu, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E coli, Klebsiella, Serratia

Name the primary uses of 3rd generation cephalosporins

gram-
meningitis, gonorrhea, Pseudomonas

Name the primary uses of aztreonam

gram- rods

Name the primary uses of imipenem

gram+ cocci
gram- rods
anaerobes
Pseudomonas

Name the primary uses of vancomycin

gram+ esp. resistant bugs
MRSA
C. difficile

Name the primary uses of aminoglycosides

gram- rods (no anaerobes b/c they require O2 for uptake)

Name the primary uses of tetracyclines

MR CHuB = M. pneumo, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, H. pylori, Borrelia; also atypical pneumo

Name the primary uses of macrolides

Atypical pnemo (mycoplasm, chlamydia, legionella)
gram+ cocci (Strep, Neisseria)

Name the primary uses of clindamycin

anaerobes (Bacteroides, Clostridium)

Name the primary uses of SMX/TMP

Gram+
Gram-
Nocardia
Chlamydia
UTI
Shigella
Salmonella
PCP

Name the primary uses of fluoroquinolones

gram- rods (esp. urinary/GI)
Pseudomonas
Neisseria

Name the primary uses of metronidazole

GET GAP = Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, Anaerobes, h. Pylori; also C. difficile

What drugs are used to treat Pseudomonas?

Pipercillin, 3rd-4th generation cephalosporin, imipenem, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides

What drugs are used to treat syphilis?

penicillin

What drugs are used to treat gram- rods?

Amp/Amoxicillin, 3rd generation cephalosporin, aztreonam, imipenem,

Name the primary uses of amphotericin B

serious mycoses

Name the primary uses of azoles

serious mycoses, incl. cryptococcus in AIDS patients

Name the primary uses of echinocandin

Candida, Aspergillis

Name the primary uses of amantadine

Flu A, Parkinson's

Name the primary uses of oseltamivir

Flu A + B

Name the primary uses of ribavirin

RSV, chronic HCV

Name the primary uses of acyclovir

HSV, VZV, EBV

Name the primary uses of ganciclovir

CMV

What drugs are used to treat CMV?

ganciclovir

What drugs are used to treat RSV?

ribavirin

What drugs are used to treat chronic HCV?

ribavirin

What drugs are used to treat HSV?

acyclovir

What drugs are used to treat EBV?

acyclovir

What drugs are used to treat VZV?

acyclovir

What drugs are used to treat flu A?

amantadine, oseltamivir

What drugs are used to treat Flu B?

oseltamivir

What drugs are used to treat cryptococcus in AIDS patients?

azoles

Name the important anti-fungals

Amphotericin B
Azoles
Echinocandin
Fluorocytosine

What drug is used to treat VRE?

linezolid

Name the anti-TB drugs

INH-SPiRE (inspire)
Isoniazid (INH), Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Ethambutol

What drug has CNS adverse effects based on B6 deficiency?

isoniazid (anti-TB)

What drugs are used for atypical pneumonias?

Macrolides (azithromycin)
Tetracyclines (doxycycline)

What drug chelates with Calcium so cannot be taken with milk?

tetracyclines

What drug gives kids gray teeth and depresses bone growth?

tetracyclines

What drug is particularly rash-o-genic?

clindamycin (also penicillins and cephalosporins)

What drug can produce a rash 7-10 days after administration?

TMP/SMX

What drug has particularly bad side effects in AIDS patients?

TMP/SMX

What drug displaces serum albumen and can cause kernicturis?

TMP/SMX

What drugs are used for anaerobes (e.g. Bacteroides)?

metronidazole, 2nd gen cephalosporin, pipercillin, imipenem, tetracycline, linezolid

What drugs is used for pediatric meningitis?

ceftriaxone (3rd gen cephalosporin)

What drug is used for expanded activity against a community acquired pneumonia with an unknown agent?

cefuroxime (2nd gen cephalosporin)

What drugs are used to treat C. difficile?

vancomycin, metronidazole

What drug has the adverse side effect of redman syndrome and how can this be avoided?

vancomycin, avoided by slowing infusion rate

What drug is described as being "slowly cidal"?

vancomycin

What drugs are used for legionella?

fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin)
macrolides

What drug can cause tendonitis and cartilage damage?

fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin)

What drug causes red-green color blindness?

ethambutol

What drug causes ocular toxicity and optic neuritis?

ethambutol

What drug cannot be used during pregnancy because of the endocrine side effects?

azoles (ketoconazole, fluconazole)

What antifungal has the fewest side effects?

echinocandins (just drug-drug interactions)

What drug inhibits viral DNA polymerase but must be activated by thymidine kinase for activity?

acyclovir

What drug inhibits viral DNA polymerase but does not need thymidine kinase for activity?

ganciclovir

What antiviral causes bone marrow toxicity?

ganciclovir, ribavirin

What antiviral is teratogenic?

ribavirin

How is Pasteurella treated?

augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanate)

What drug is resistant to Listeria?

cephalosporins

What are the principle resistance mechanisms to penicillin?

B-lactamase hydrolysis of ring
Alteration of PBP site
Alteration of permeability

What is the principle resistance mechanism to vancomycin?

changes D-Ala D-Ala to D-Ala D-Lac

What is the principle resistance mechanism to macrolides?

23S ribosomal RNA binding site mutations
Plasma-mediated inactivating enzymes
Efflux

What is the principle resistance mechanism to tetracyclines?

Efflux

What are the principle resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides?

transferase enzymes inactivate drug

What is the principle resistance mechanism to sulfonamides and trimethoprim?

Altered dihyropteroate synthetase, decreased uptake, increased PABA
TMP impermeability

What is the principle resistance mechanism to fluoroquinolones?

chromosome encoded DNA gyrase mutation

Which antibiotics have a disulfiram-like reaction with ethanol?

cephalosporin, metronidazole

What side effects are common with imipenem?

GI distress, skin rash, CNS toxicity (seizures)

What side effects are common with cephalosporins?

hypersensitivity
disulfiram-like reaction with ethanol

What side effects are common with aztreonam?

mild, occasional GI

What side effects are common with vancomycin?

generally well-tolerated, does NOT have many problems:
NOT = nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombophlebitis
also redman syndrome

What side effects are common with aminoglycosides?

Nephrotoxicity (esp with concurrent cephalosporin)
Ototoxicity
Teratogenic

What side effects are common with tetracyclines?

GI distress
Tooth discoloration and bone growth inhibition
Photosensitivity

What side effects are common with macrolides?

Prolonged QT
GI discomfort
Hepatitis
Eosinophilia
Skin rashes

What side effects are common with clindamycin?

C. diff overgrowth
Fever
Diarrhea

What side effects are common with SMX?

Hypersensitivity
Nephrotoxicity
Photosensitivity
Kernicterus in infants
Displaces albumin

What side effects are common with TMP?

Megaloblastic anemia
Leukopenia
Granulocytopenia

What side effects are common with fluoroquinolones?

GI upset
Superinfection
Skin rashes
HA
Dizziness
Tendonitis and tendon rupture

What side effects are common with metronidazole?

disulfiram-like reaction with alcohol
HA

What side effects are common with isoniazid?

Neurotoxicity
Hepatotoxicity
Lupus
Vitamin B6 deficiency

What side effects are common with rifampin?

hepatotoxicity
induces CYPs
orange body fluids

What side effects are common with amphotericin B?

Fevers/chills
Hypotension
Nephrotoxicity
Arrhythmias
Anemia
IV phlebitis

What side effects are common with azoles?

hormone synthesis inhibition
CYP inhibits
fever/chills

Name the primary antibiotic that does not have an effect on Streptococci.

aminoglycosides

Name the cell wall inhibitors

Penicillin
Cephalosporin

Name the antimetabolites

SMX
TMP

Name the DNA inhibitors

Quinolones

Name the protein synthesis inhibitors

Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin

MOA SMX?

inhibits folate synth via dihydropteroate synthase

MOA TMP?

inhibits folate synth via dihydrofolate reductase (like methotrexate!)

MOA quinolones?

inhibit topoisomerase (like etoposide!)

MOA aminoglycosides?

binds 30S ribosomal subunit (CLEAN TAG)

MOA tetracyclines?

binds 30S ribosomal subunit (CLEAN TAG)

MOA chloramphenicol?

binds 50S ribosomal subunit (CLEAN TAG)

MOA erythromycin?

binds 50S ribosomal subunit (CLEAN TAG)

antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy?

SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care
Sulfa
Aminoglycosides
Fluoroquinolones
Erythromycin
Metronidazole
Tetracyclines
Ribavirin
Griseofulvin
Chloramphenocol

Antibiotic that causes seizures?

imipenem

Antibiotic that causes long QT?

macrolides (esp erythromycin)

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set