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1) Functions and structure, of the nervous system.

Sensory Intput

1) Gather Information
2) To monitor changes occuring inside and outside the body
3) Changes or stimuli

Integration

To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed.

Motor Output

1) a response to integrated stimuli
2) The response activities muscles or glands

Central nervous System (CNS)

Brain and the spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. (spinal nerves and cranial nerves)

Motor (efferent) neurons

Nerves that carry impulses to the central nervous system to the viscera or glands.

Motor (efferent) division

Nerves that carry impulses away from the central nervous system

Subdivision of the Peripheral nervous system

1) Somatic voluntary nervous system
2) autonomic involuntary nervous system

Support cells

are made from connective tissue

Support cells functions

Are to support, insulate, and protect neurons.

Astrocytes

1) Control the chemical of the brain
2) Form blood brain barrier (BBB) between capilaries and neurons.
3) Abundant star shaped cells and brace neurons.

Microglia

Spiderlike phagocytes and disposed of debris.

Ependymal cells

line cavities od the brain, spinal cord and it also circulate cerebrospinal fluid.

oligodendrocytes

Produce myelin sheath and are wraped aroundnerve fibers in the central nervous system

Satellite cells

Protect neuron cell bodies

Schwann cells

forms myelin sheath in PNS in jelly roll-like fashion

Myelin sheaths

Whitish, fatty mateial covering axons. They are also synthesize by CNS

Nephrons

Nerves in the kidneys

Component of the cell body

Nissl Substance, Neurofibrils, Nucleus, large nucleolus

Nissl substance

Specialized rough endoplasmic ER

Neurofibrils

Intermediated cytoskeleton, Maintain cell shape.

Nerves processes

1) Dendrites conduct impulses toward the cell body
2) Axons conduct impulses away from the cell body
3) Axons end in axonal terminants
4) Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap

Synaptic cleft

gap between adjacent neurons

Synapse

Junction between nerves( comunication point of two neurons)

Node of Ranvier

gaps in myelin sheath along the axon

Gray Matter

Cell bodies and un myelinated fibers.

basal Nuclei

Clusters of the cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous.

Ganglia (PNS)

Collections of cells bodies outside the central nervous system

Sensory (Afferent) neurons

1) Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS
2) Cutaneous sense organs
3) Propriceptors (sense of postition) - detect stretch or tension

Interneurons

Found in neural pathways inthe central nervous system an it connect sensory motor neurons.

Multipolar neurons

many extension from the cell body

Bipolar neurons

One axon and on dentrite

unipolar neurons

have a short single process leaving the cell body

Functional propeerties of neurons

irritability, and conductivity

Irritability

Ability to respond to a stimuli

conductivity

Ability to transmit an impulse

Polorization

Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell

Depolorization

membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the member because of a stimulus

Repolorization

Potassium ion (K) goes out the neurons cell ATP energy pumped sodium ion (Na+) out of the cell

Ation potential

1) If the actrion potential starts, it is propagated over the entire axon.
2) impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath

Transmission of a signal at sypanases

1) Impulses are able to cross the sypnase to aothe nerve.
2) Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve's axon terminal
3) The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by neurotransmitter
4) an action potential is started in the dendrite

Reflex

Rapid, predictable and involuntary response to a stimulus.

reflex arc

the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action

somatic reflex

reflex which controls skeletal muscle contractions

autonomic reflexes

smooth muscle regulation, heart and blood pressure regulation, regulation of glands, digestive system regulation

regions of the brain

Cerebral hemispheres(cerebrum), Clencephalon, Brain Stem, Cerebellum

Layers of the cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)

Gray matter, white matter, corpus collosum, basal Nuclei

geay matter

the outer layer in the cerebral cortex composed of mostly neuron cell bodies

white matter

fiber tracts deep to the gray matter

corpus callosum

connects hemisphers

basal nuclei

island of gray matter within the white matter

Diencephalin

Sits on top of the brain stem, it enclosed by the cerebral hemisphere and made of three parts. Thalmus, hypothalmus, epithalmus.

Thalmus

surround the third ventrical, relay station for sensory impulsesm transfer impulses to the correct cortex for localizin, and interpreting.

hypothalmus

locate under thalmus. an autonomis nervous system. responsible for regulating body temp and metabolism, control water balance.

epithalmus

forms root of the third ventricle. house the pineal gland, include chorochoid plexus that forms cerebrospinal fluid.

brain stem

attaches to the spinal cord. different parts of brain stem are midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, reticular formation.

Midbrain

reflex center for hearing

pons

bulging part of the brain stem, composed of fiber tracts, and control breathing.

medulla oblongata

lowest part of the brain stem. merges into spinal cord control center for vital signs except temperature.

reticular formation

diffuse mass of gray matter. involved in visceral organ control plays role in awake/sleep cycle and consciousness

cerebellum

provide involuntay coordination of body movements. two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces.

nervous system protection

Scalp, skin, skull, vertebral column, dura mater, arachnoid layer, spinalcerebral fluid, and pia mater.

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