1) Gather Information
2) To monitor changes occuring inside and outside the body
3) Changes or stimuli
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. (spinal nerves and cranial nerves)
Motor (efferent) neurons
Nerves that carry impulses to the central nervous system to the viscera or glands.
Subdivision of the Peripheral nervous system
1) Somatic voluntary nervous system
2) autonomic involuntary nervous system
1) Control the chemical of the brain
2) Form blood brain barrier (BBB) between capilaries and neurons.
3) Abundant star shaped cells and brace neurons.
Produce myelin sheath and are wraped aroundnerve fibers in the central nervous system
1) Dendrites conduct impulses toward the cell body
2) Axons conduct impulses away from the cell body
3) Axons end in axonal terminants
4) Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap
Sensory (Afferent) neurons
1) Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS
2) Cutaneous sense organs
3) Propriceptors (sense of postition) - detect stretch or tension
Found in neural pathways inthe central nervous system an it connect sensory motor neurons.
Potassium ion (K) goes out the neurons cell ATP energy pumped sodium ion (Na+) out of the cell
1) If the actrion potential starts, it is propagated over the entire axon.
2) impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath
Transmission of a signal at sypanases
1) Impulses are able to cross the sypnase to aothe nerve.
2) Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve's axon terminal
3) The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by neurotransmitter
4) an action potential is started in the dendrite
the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action
smooth muscle regulation, heart and blood pressure regulation, regulation of glands, digestive system regulation
Layers of the cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)
Gray matter, white matter, corpus collosum, basal Nuclei
Sits on top of the brain stem, it enclosed by the cerebral hemisphere and made of three parts. Thalmus, hypothalmus, epithalmus.
surround the third ventrical, relay station for sensory impulsesm transfer impulses to the correct cortex for localizin, and interpreting.
locate under thalmus. an autonomis nervous system. responsible for regulating body temp and metabolism, control water balance.
forms root of the third ventricle. house the pineal gland, include chorochoid plexus that forms cerebrospinal fluid.
attaches to the spinal cord. different parts of brain stem are midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, reticular formation.
lowest part of the brain stem. merges into spinal cord control center for vital signs except temperature.
diffuse mass of gray matter. involved in visceral organ control plays role in awake/sleep cycle and consciousness
provide involuntay coordination of body movements. two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces.