Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox Church.
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c. 800.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in the battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Tang ruler 690- 705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddhas created.
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
Author of The Prince; emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of the most influential authors of the Renaissance.
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women.
Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
A monk who challenged Abelard. He stressed the importance of mystical union with God and God's truth must be received through faith alone.
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of western European expansion.
A Florentine painter who painted a realistic fly on Cimabue's painting
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system of England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Established liberal economics (His book, Wealth of Nations); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of operation of market forces.
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at the University of Paris; author of several Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and the nature of God.
Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336- 1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Eastern Roman Emperor between 527 and 565 C.E.; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Also know as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar-equivalent of emperor.
Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist aristocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocracy); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
The "Lion-Prince"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260.
One of Sundiata's successors who made a pilgrimage to Mecca to 1324 and brought the attention of the Muslim world to Mali.
Alexander the Great
Successor of the Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E.; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures.
Roman Emperor from 284 to 305 C.E.; restored later empire by improved administration and tax collection.
Roman emperor from 312 to 337 C.E.; established second capital at Constantinople; attempted to use religious force of CHristianity to unify empire spiritually.
Leader of the victorious Minamoto who weakened regime. He killed many family members to protect his throne.
English physician who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of the Wittenberg church emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic Church; accepted state control of church.
French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva ; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education ; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
The people who stated their own dynasty. They defeated the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam.
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632.
Also known as Shi'ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
Political and theological division within Islam; followers of the Umayyads.
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of Northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna and westward into Spain.
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into Sub-Sahara Africa.
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rule in Byzantine Empire.
Cyril & Methodius
Missionaries sent by the Byzantine Government to eastern Europe and the Balkans ; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic called Cyrillic.
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures; term also used for leader of empire.
Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433; only Chinese attempt to create worldwide trade empire.
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
Born in 1170s in decades following the death of Kubal Khan; elected khangan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms in China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227. prior to the conquest of most of the Islamic world.
A leader of the French Enlightenment. He worked on the Encyclopédie.
A philosopher who was one of the fathers of humanism.
A Renaissance Artist who painted The Birth of Venus and Primavera.
A scientist who came up with the scientific method.
A group of people after the Toltecs who settled at Lake Texcoco.
Leonardo da Vinci
A scientist and artist. He painted The Last Supper. He also drew the Virtruvian Man
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Europe.
He was emperor who was assassinated by his wife, Catherine the Great.