King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta. L
king james I
English king who wanted to have a successful colony in America
english civil war
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
king James II
king during early colonization; overthrown by William of Orange in the "Glorious Revolutuion" of 1688
english bill of rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
French government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution, absolute monarchy + estates general
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
replaced National Assembly; took away most of king's power
revolutionaries break into prisons across france and massacre thousands of many innocent people for fear that political prisoners will aid the austrian-prussian army
L'ami du peuple
newspaper edited by Jean-Paul Marat that translated to friend of the people
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon, equality before the law, religious toleration
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods into Europe.
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
hereditary right of a monarch to rule
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
The English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans (see English Civil War) who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (Mid 1600s).
The two names of those who supported Charles I during the English Civil War.
the re-establishment of the British monarchy with James II
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
king louis XIV
French king known as the Sun King. Reigned from 1643 to 1715
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the old regime.
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
storming of the Bastille
Destruction of the prison seen as the true start of the French Revolution.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
the newly appointed minister of justice who led the sans-culottes in revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
French general who became emperor of the French. /overthrew directory
government run public schools set up by Napoleon to create a more equal chance at education. However this didn't really allow the poorer children to get a better education because they often had to stay home and work.
Area purchased by the U.S. in 1803 that included much of the land west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Klemens Von Metternich
The Foreign Minister of Austria; he had the most influence at the Congress of Vienna.
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
power of the purse
Constitutional power given to Congress to raise and spend money
petition of right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
william and mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
jean baptiste colbert
This mercantilist economist was the financial advisor to Louis XIV
In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed.
tennis court oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written, after they were locked out of their meeting room during estates general
declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men., they wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
radical, revolutionary journalist
1st republic of France, right before napoleon Bonaparte, Louis was killed, reign of terror occurred, Robespierre ruled
reign of terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
a formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
battle of trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
balance of powers
Each branch of governments has "checks" on the other branches to ensure evenly distributed power
concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions