American Study Vocab Final

92 terms by pnutbuter

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Nativism

a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

New Deal

Term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression

Birth of a Nation

1915, first full length classic. glorified the KKK of reconruction days and defamed both blacks and Northern carpetbaggers

Emergency Banking Relief Act

(FDR) 1933 , gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened., HUNDRED DAYS STARTS

Ku Klux Klan

An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American.

Keynesian economics

Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.

National Origins Act (1924)

A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.

Lend-Lease Act (1941)

A program in which the United States supplied war supplies to the U.K, Soviet Union, China, France, and other nations in exchange for military bases in Bermuda and the West Indies.

Sacco + Vanzetti Trial

Anti-redism. Convicted 1921 of murder of Mass. paymaster and his guard. Jury and judge prejudiced because defendants were Italian, atheists, anarchist, draft dodgers, etc. Electrocuted 6 years later

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Scopes Trial

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools

Japanese Internment

Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 men, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.

Prohibition, rise of organized crime

the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

Rationing

a system of allocating scarce goods and services using criteria other than price

Frederick W. Taylor, Scientific Management

A work published to describe that the application of the scientific method to the management of workers could improve productivity.

John L. Lewis

He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Radio

emerged during the 1920s and contained stations such as church services, news, music and sports

Zoot Suit Riots

A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.

Flappers

women who abandoned dress and conduct codes of the past; these rebellious girls became the symbol of the Roaring Twenties; shocked their elders with short skits, slang, new dances, heavy makeup, and drinking or smoking in public

A. Philip Randolph + March on Washington

An African American Civil Rights Leader, founded "March on Washington"—designed to influence Congress to desegregate the military

Margaret Sanger + birth control

founded the Planned Parenthood Federation of America and created America's first nearly foolproof oral contraceptive. To women, it opened up the possibility that they could choose when, how, and if to have children, careers, or marriages.

Fair Employment Practices Commission

Created in 1941 by executive order, the FEPC sought to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs; it possessed little power but represented a step toward civil rights for African Americans.

Jazz

a style of dance music popular in the 1920s

Yalta Conference

1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war

"Lost Generation"

Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe

Potsdam Conference

July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

Holocaust

(n.) a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering

Marcus Garvey

founder of United Negro Improvement Association ;; promotes resettlement of American blacks to own "African homeland", sponsored stores & businesses to keep $ in blacks' pockets ;; inspiration for Nation of Islam

Island Hopping

stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Conservative policies of Harding

Warren Harding awarded cabinet and governmental positions to political supporters. The practice proved to have dire consequences. Long-time political cronies abused their offices for personal gain. Harding's passive style of leadership almost certainly contributed to their wrongdoing.

Stalingrad

City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)

Teapot Dome scandal

Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land in California and at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to 2 oil executives- Fall became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison

Midway

naval battle of World War II (June 1942)

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Andrew Mellon

the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)

Stock Market Crash (1929)

In 1929, the stock market crashed and caused a world wide Depression. As early as March the stock market had mini-crashes, signaling something was seriously wrong. In October 1929, on Black Friday it crashed. The Thursday before 12 mil. stocks had changed hands. The full devestation was not fully realized until the following Tuesday.

Hoovervilles

shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.

Bonus Army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.

FDR

Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms

Sovereign

Kings and Queens

Treaty

a pact

Annex

overthrow

Colonies

overseas territories

Population growth

a population that is getting bigger in a positive rate

Elites

Highly priveleged People

Trade Surplus

Exports are more than imports

Tariffs

a fee on goods

Interest rates

time that was measured and added to how much the borrower has to pay

Debt burden

cost of holding debt

inflation

rising in a general level

Empire

groups of things (civilizations) ruled by one authority

Anglo-Saxons

People decent from the Pilgrims or before the flux of immigrants that came

Territories

land owned by other countries

Partition

Dividing things

Intervention

To get involved in something unneeded

Self-government

own ruling without other countries

investment

put money in a place where there would be future profit

nationalist

people who want to be free of greater rule

economic foundations

a system to support the economy

Protestant denominations

a group of Protestants. Christians other than Catholics

Jingoes

Extreme Nationalism, almost aggressive

Truce

stopping war temporarily

Calvary Regiment

a military unit that usually rides horses

Occupiers

Helf control of something: took possession.
Staing in a land out of country

Archipelago

group of islands

Ratification

the act of agreeing on something; approving

Guerilla

a person of a military unit that works in small bands and likes to surprise raid their enemy

Commonwealth Status

in the state of protection. protected but not having full rights for others. Benefits both sides

Sphere of influence

an area of land, country, or region that is impacted by another country

William Mckinley - Republican

The 25th president that was a lawyer abd sponsered the McKinley Tariff act of 1980. He was Governor of Ohio tice and the Spanish

Theodore Roosevelt - Republican

Served 2 terms. 1900 and 1904. Applied to Assistant Secretary of the NAvy and led the Rough Riders Regiment in Cuba

Grover Cleveland - Democrat

President before McKinley.
Wanted peace not war when Maine exploded, but decided on war.
Opossed the annexation of Hawaii.
Served twice as President

Reverend Josiah Stron

Advocated Protestant values to other nations.
Halled for the US to fight on humanition grounds in Cuba.
Founder of the Social Gospel and was a WASP

Plessy v. Ferguson

A cas how 7/8 White and 1/8 Black man named Horner Plessy was arrested from resisting the moving of a white car to a black car. The Supreme court was protected by federal laws.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Nationalist leader of the Philippines.
Proclaimed himself head of the government that promises elections.
Wanted Spain out of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War.
Was a guerilla warfare person.

Zionism

The national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel

Nationalism

Pride, loyalty, and devotion to one's country

Materialism

The theory or attitude that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life

Collectivism

Any various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and adminsitration of the means of production and distribution of goods

Imperialism

The policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and control of a nation

Socialism

An economic theory advocating collective control especially over production and distribution

Fascism

Politicaly philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

Anarchism

Political theory holding all forms of governmental autority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups

Humanism

Philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason

Militarism

The principle or policy of maintaining a large military

Fatalism

The doctorine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable

Communism

A system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitaran state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party

Chauvinism

Belief of zealous and aggressive patriotism or blind enthusiasm for military glory

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