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x-rays are a form of

electromagnetic imaging

radiograph

is the sheet of plastic and emulsion with an image on it

scatter radiation

radiation that changes direction when it hits the patient or table

collimator

is an apparatus that's located directly under the x-ray tube. it helps limit the size of the radiation beam coming out of the tube

if radiation damage showed up within the lifetime of the recipient, it would be called _____damage

somatic

what is a voltage compensator

a control used to manually adjust the transformer to compensate for inconsistent electrical output

the thickness requirement for radiographic protective apparel is _____lead equivalent

.5mm

what is the most common cause of x-ray tube failure

filament evaporation

the ____helps us to center the x-ray beam using light

collimator

what is the purpose of the aluminum filter, located between the x-ray tube and the collimator

eliminates the soft x-rays, which cause skin damage

the area hit by electrons after they pass across the x-ray tube is called the

target

due to the heel effect, the thickest part of an animal's abdomen should be placed

under the cathode side of the tube

to help dissipate heat, the x-ray tube contains

oil

changing the anode target angle from 20 degrees to 15 degrees will

increase the heel effect

a radiograph is an

image

what are radiation logs

radiation logs help track techniques used on repeat patients and radiation exposure of staff

what is the recommended way to check lead safety apparel

radiograph it at least annually

in the x-ray machine, the particles that are emitted by the heated filament are called

electrons

which of the following is a type of collimation device

diaphragm

mAs

milliamperage-seconds

kV

kilovoltage

when you take a radiograph does it make the items in the room radioactive

No radiation that comes from the xray tube loses its energy doesn't stay in the room to make objects radioactive

why is the xray tube enclosed in glass

the xray tube is enclosed in glass so a vacuum can be created

what is the purpose of a rotating anode

to dissipate heat more quickly and prevent damage to the anode

what determines the amount of absorption of the x-rays as they pass through an object

the atomic number of the material, the physical density of the object, andt he energy of the x-rays

the x-ray tube consists of a/an _____and a/an_____

anode;cathode

name 2 functions of the collimator seen on most stationary small animal machines

to limit the area covered by the primary beam, to prevent scatter radiation

what is a collimator made of

lead

what does a control panel do

the control panel allow the operator to control the x-ray machine and adjust the settings as needed

what is the minimal radiation exposure safety protection necessary when in the room during x-ray exposure

gowns and gloves of 0.5 mm lead equivalent are mandatory. It is recommended that eye and thyroid protection also be worn

what is a film badge and what is it used for

a film badge is a device worn at neck level outside the gown during radiation procedures to monitor how much radiation the worker is exposed to

What is the difference between primary and scatter radiation

primary radiation is radiation found in the x-ray beam leaving the machine. Scatter radiation is any radiation found outside the primary beam

why is it important in veterinary radiology to keep the mA setting as high as possible

when the mA is as high as possbile it means the time can be as low as possible. this is important due to animal movement. also shorter exposure times decreases radiation exposure to personnel

where is the grid located

the grid is located under the table and above the cassette holding tray.

List three functions of a cassette

A cassette is used to hold the intensifying screens, keep the film clean, and keep light away from the film

what is a latent image

The latent image is the image that's on a piece of film once the film is exposed to radiation; however, this image can't be seen because film development hasn't yet occurred

what is the difference between nonscreen film and regular film.

Screen film is placed in the cassette for use. Nonscreen film isn't placed in a cassette but is in its own lighttight paper envelope. Screen film is sensitive to light. Nonscreen film is sensitive to x-rays. Nonscreen film give a higher detail than screen film but also requires much more radiation to produce an image

when storing film, what three factors must be considered

The film storage must be lighttight, dry, and cool. It must also be free from radiation and must not have fumes from chemicals in sufficient amounts to be a detriment to the film

explain how a bone should be oriented to the casssette during a radiographic exposure. What happens if the orentation of this bone isn't as it should be

All bones should be parallel with the cassette and as close as possible to the cassette when the radiograph is taken. If one end of the bone is farther off the cassette than the other-or if t he entire bone isn't close to the cassette-then the end that's lifted will appear enlarged and less detailed

What stops scatter readiation from causing fog on the film

a grid

When the SID is changed, what happens to the image

its detail changes

When measuring an animal body part with a caliper to set the technique, the unit used is the

centimeter

You've just radiographed the leg of a dog and now need to radiograph the abdomen. For the film to be exposed correctly, the

kV setting needs to be increased

when developing, films should spend

twice as long in the fixer as in the developer

after placing the film into the tank for developing

gently shake the film to remove air bubbles

True of False. Fixing agents is part of the developing solution

False

Film thats used without intensifying screens takes more or less radiation for the exposure

more

the automatic processor takes less time to process film than hand developing because

it uses special chemicals and a higher developing temperature

when preparing the hand tanks for use, which of the following should you not do

add developer solution to the third tank

as a bone is pulled farther away from the film, what happens to the image

it gets larger on the resulting radiograph

which of these materials will allow the greatest amount of x-rays to be absorbed. Muscle, Air, Fat or Bone

Bone

According to the inverse square law, if you double the subject's distance from the x-ray tube, the x-ray exposure is

cut to one quarter

A special film must be used with an intensifying screen using rare-earth phosphors because

the crystals emit light in the green spectrum, which silver halide film won't absorb

to be sure a safelight stays safe, the light should be no closer than

four feet from the countertop

when radiographing a large dog using a grid, the radiograph comes out with poor density and white lines in some areas. you check you settings, and they're all correct. what could be the cause

the beam was misaligned with the grid's focus

a radiograph that was developed with exhausted developer solution would look too

light

what is the best way to remove hair and dust from an intensifying screen

dampen a gauze pad with cleaning solution and carefully wipe the surface

which type of film is made using larger crystals and requires less exposure by x-rays or fluorescent light from intensifying screens

Fast film

Name the five techinique charts that are normally kept for each x-ray machinge

Abdomen, thorax, extremities, pelvis/spine combo, avian/exotic

List 3 possible causes in the darkroom for a dark radiograph

Overdeveloped; fog due to improper lighting or light leak

List 3 possible causes in the radiology room for a light radiograph

not enough radiation; tube is too far away from the cassette; cassette was placed in the tray when it should have been placed on the tabletop

Which takes more radiation to make a good image, a cassette on the tabletop or a cassette placed in the holding tray

it takes more radiation to make an adequate film when the cassette is in the holding tray. More radiation is needed to penetrate the table and grid

What happens when the x-ray tube is moved closer to the table than the technique chart it is designed for

When the x-ray tube is moved closer to the film and the same amount of radiation is used, the film will come out too dark

When the film is placed in t he cassette but doesn't come into good contact with the intensifying screens, what happens to the image in that area

any area where the film doesn't come into good contact with the intensifying screens won't be as detailed as the rest of the film where good contact has been established

why is it necessary to check the collimator light against the x-ray beam

it is possible for the x-ray beam to be exposing an area different than what the light covers. this can be a great danger to the handler, who is relying on the beam being where the light indicates it will be

what causes the classic artifact that looks like a crescent moon

the crescent moon is a pressure mark made when a film is grasped between the thumb and forefinger. the film is bent at this point and a black artifact occurs.

You just took and processed a radiograph. It came out too dark. What could the problem be

overexposed or overdeveloped

A yellow radiograph could be caused by which of the following errors

residual fixer left on the film due to insufficient washing

The change in mAs that corresponds to a 15 percent change in kV is

50 percent

what should you consider when determining the technique for an animal body part

the thickness of the area and the part of the body

what is the correct way to view a lateral radiograph of a large dog

the head toward the left, the spine at the top

when formulating a technique chart, what is the effect of different intensifying screens

The mAs must be decreased for a fast screen

you were supposed to put the film in the tray but instead put it on top of the table. How will it look

Dark

The kV on a technique chart will change according to the

thickness of the animal part

Which grid-technique chart would require the least radiation for any given thickness?

Thorax

a black spot on a film could be caused by

static electricity

if a film is too light, what could be wrong

some part of the technique needs to be increased

for most veterinary clinic technique charts, exposure time usually need to be -------

doubled

the grid is used with all measurements on all technique charts for dogs and cats except for the

extremity/skull

define positioning

positioning is a description of how the animal is sitting and what body part, if any is stretched out or pulled on when the radiograph is taken.

define landmark

a landmark is something on the animal that can be palpated or seen that can help to tell us what to include in a radiograph, such a a bony protrusion, the end of a bone and so forth.

which skull view requires the x-ray tube to be tilted and why

an open-mouth nasal view or ventro-dorsal open mouth view. It is tilted to help prevent the mandible from superimposing over the nasal area.

name two ways the tympanic bullae can be evauated. give the positioning for each.

if both tympanic bullae need to be evaluated, two oblique lateral radiographs can be used. the animal is placed ina lateral position, and the head is rotated to the affected side. the open-mouthed typanic bullae view can also be used to evaluate the tympanic bullae. the animal is placed in dorsal recumbency, the nose is pointed toward the ceiling, the lower jaw is slightly opened and the beam is centered in the back of the mouth.

explain why most films are taken on expiration.

on expiration the exposure can be taken during a covenient little pause in respiration that the animal takes just after exhaling.

what films are not taken on expiration and why

in the case of the thorax we take the fim on full inspiration to see if its lungs are fully expanding

explain the bone rule

it states that when radiographing a bone, be sure to include the joint on each end of the bone to mae sure you've radiographed the full bone in between

explain the joint rule

when radiographing a joint, be sure to center directly over the joint and include only one to two inches of each of the bones that make up the joint

when radiographing the pelvis in a lateral position the legs should be

staggered for better viewing

to determine if a lateral skull view is truly lateral or not, the ______should be superimposed

top and bottom canine teeth

which of the following is a landmark for spinal radiographs

greater trochanter

when naming views, which of the following is correct

the first part of the word is where the beam enters the body

when does reticulation of the fil occur

reticulum occurs in the deveoping process when a film is moved from a chemical of one temperature to another chemical at a different temperature. the change in temperature causes reticulation

where in the darkroom is there most likely to be a light leak

around the door or seams in a suspended ceiling

what is meant by the wet side and the dry side of a darkroom

one area should house the wet materials like the hand-processing tanks and hangers. another should house materials that aren't supposed to get wet like cassettes and film.

why is it important ot keep the wet and the dry side of the darkroom separated

if film gets wet before it's ready to be placed in the developer solution it will be damaged. if intensifying screens are allowed to become wet of splashed with chemicals they could be ruined

what are the steps in the manual processing procedure

developer-wash-fixer-wash-dry

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