Clinical Procedures I Mrs. McDaniel

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Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Means of Transmission:

Direct or indirect contact

Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Incubation:

1-7 days

Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Symptoms:

Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck, strawberry tongue, rash of skin and inside mouth, high fever, nausea, and vomiting

Scarlet fever (scarlatina) (streptococcal) Treatment:

Antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, increase fluid intake, and bed rest

Strep throat Means of Transmission:

Direct contact

Strep throat Incubation:

1-3 days

Strep throat Symptoms:

Fever, red and sore throat, pus spots on back of throat, tender and swollen glands of neck

Strep throat Treatment:

Antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, increase fluid intake

Scabies Means of Transmission:

Direct contact or indirect contact with infested clothing/bedding

Scabies Incubation:

2-6 weeks

Scabies Symptoms:

Intense itching of small, raised areas of skin that contain fluid or tiny burrows under the skin, resembling a line-may be anywhere on the body

Scabies Treatment:

Topical scabicide, oral antihistamines, and salicylates to reduce itching

Pneumonia Means of Transmission:

Direct and indirect contact

Pneumonia Incubation:

Abrupt onset

Pneumonia Symptoms:

High fever, shaking, chills, productive cough

Pneumonia Treatment:

Antibiotics, liquids, rest, antipyretics

Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Means of Transmission:

Direct transfer of eggs from anus to mouth; indirect contact with eggs in clothing, bedding

Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Incubation:

3 weeks-3months

Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Symptoms:

Anal itching, insomnia, irritability

Pinworms (Enteroblus vermicularis) Treatment:

Anthelmintics, initiate scrupulous personal hygiene, shorten fingernails; launder washable items in hottest or boiled water

Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Means of Transmission:

Direct or indirect contact with discharge from eyes or upper respiratory tract of infected person

Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Incubation:

Viral: 24 hours to days; bacterial: 24-72 hours

Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Symptoms:

Redness of eyes, itching burning of eyes, matted eyelashes

Conjunctivitis (pink eye) Treatment:

Antibacterial agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids depending on causative agent

Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Means of Transmission:

Direct contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract

Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Incubation:

1-10 days, usually 3-4 days

Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Symptoms:

Sudden onset of fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting; sometimes petechial rash, irritability, sluggishness (possible seizures or coma)

Meningitis (bacterial) haemophilus and meningococcal Treatment:

Hospitalization, bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, analgesics, antibiotics, by intravenous and/or oral administration

Meningitis (aseptic) Means of Transmission:

Direct contact, fecal-oral route, and respiratory secretions

Meningitis (aseptic) Incubation:

2-21 days

Meningitis (aseptic) Symptoms:

Sudden or gradual fever, intense headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, irritability, sluggishness

Meningitis (aseptic) Treatment:

Hospitalization, bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, analgesics

Influenza Means of Transmission:

Direct and indirect contact and by airborne secretions

Influenza Incubation:

1-3 days

Influenza Symptoms:

Sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, sore muscles, malaise (commonly runny nose, sore throat, and cough)

Influenza Treatment:

Bed rest, increased fluid intake, antipyretics

Impetigo Means of Transmission:

Direct contact with draining sores

Impetigo Incubation:

2-10 days

Impetigo Symptoms:

Blister like lesions (later become crusted), itching

Impetigo Treatment:

Cleansing of areas with antibacterial soap and water, topical and/or oral antibiotics

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Means of Transmission:

Direct contact with infected person

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Incubation:

2-14 days, usually 4-6 days

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Symptoms:

Painful blister on lips, which turn pustular and then form crusted scabs; oral lesions are small ulcerated areas

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (cold sores, fever blisters) Treatment:

Topical applications of drying medications; antibiotics for secondary infections

Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Means of Transmission:

Direct contact with blood, contaminated needles

Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Incubation:

14-50 days acute onset

Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Symptoms:

Onset is rapid and acute, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool

Hepatitis C (formerly non-A, non-B or NANB) Treatment:

Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Means of Transmission:

Contaminated serum in blood transfusion or by use of contaminated needles or instruments

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Incubation:

14-50 days

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Symptoms:

Onset is rapid and acute, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Treatment:

Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)

Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Means of Transmission:

Direct contact or by fecal-contaminated food or water

Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Incubation:

14-50 days, average 25-30 days

Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Symptoms:

Slow onset, fever, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, weakness, dark urine, whitish stool

Hepatitis A (acute infective hepatitis) Treatment:

Bed rest, increased fluid intake, proper nourishment (no fats or alcohol)

Head lice (pediculosis) Means of Transmission:

direct contact with infested person; indirect contact is rare

Head lice (pediculosis) Incubation:

1 week (nits, or eggs, hatch in 1 week, mature in 2 weeks)

Head lice (pediculosis) Symptoms:

Itching of scalp; presence of small, light gray lice and nits (eggs) at the base of hairs

Head lice (pediculosis) Treatment:

Topical use of 1% lindane shampoo, lotion, or cream (7-10 days); comb nits from hair; launder washable items in hot water with hottest drying cycle, dry-clean or seal in plastic bags non washable items (2 weeks); thoroughly vacuum the environment

Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Means of Transmission:

Direct and indirect contact and droplet infection from respiratory tract

Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Incubation:

3+ days

Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Symptoms:

URI symptoms, fever, aches, sleepiness, no appetite; as disease progresses, child is irritable and fussy

Haemophilus influenza type b Hib (H-flu) Treatment:

Antibiotics, increased fluid intake, antipyretics, rest, analgesics

Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Means of Transmission:

Direct or indirect contact with infected person

Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Incubation:

12-72 hours (some viruses 2-7 days), usually 24 hours

Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Symptoms:

Slight sore throat, watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, chills, malaise, low-grade fever

Common cold (upper respiratory infection-URI) Treatment:

Rest, decongestant, mild analgesics, increased fluid intake

Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Means of Transmission:

Direct or indirect contact, droplet, or airborne secretion of infected person

Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Incubation:

2-3 weeks, usually 13-17 days

Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Symptoms:

Crops of pruritic vesicular eruptions on the skin, slight fever and headache, malaise

Chickenpox (varicella zoster virus) Treatment:

Bed rest, topical antipruritics

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Means of Transmission:

Direct contact: sexual, anal, or vaginal intercourse, sharing IV drug needles, infected mother to child (childbirth), blood to blood (from cuts, scrapes, punctures of skin). Indirect contact: blood transfusions.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Incubation:

Onset of AIDS following infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from 6 months to 10+ years.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Symptoms:

Early-loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, skin rashes, diarrhea, fatigue, poor resistance to infections, swollen lymph nodes. Later-cough, fever, shortness of breath, dyspnea, purple blothches on the skin.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Treatment:

Research and new developments continue in the search for a cure and a vaccine. The current treatment most commonly used is zidovudine (AZT).

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