The basic unit of all forms of life
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic unit of strucutre and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells.
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds ALL cells; it regulates what enters and leaves the cell
in cells, the structure that contains the cells genetic material in the form of DNA
organism whose cells contain a nucelous
unicellular organism that lacks a nucelous
fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus
specialized strucutre that preforms important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organiziation and is involed in cell movement
the structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis.
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; the place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for strorage in the cell or release outside the cell.
organelle found in cells of plants and other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
the cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convinient for the cell to use
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
the flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot
process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concntrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
the water channel protein in a cell
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
relatively consistant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone.
Adenosine Tripohsphate (ATP)
compound used by cells to store and release energy
organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; a consumer
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; a producer.
process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
light-absoribing molecules used by plants to gather the suns energy
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
set of reactions in photosynthesis that uses energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also known as THE CALVIN CYCLE
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
Electron Transport Chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
cluster of proteins that span the thylakoid membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it
the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
process that requires oxygen
process that does not require oxygen
first set of reactions in cellular respiration during which 1 molecule of glucose, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
electron carrier involed in glycolysis
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. (the citric acid cycle)
inermost compartment of the mitochondrion
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
process in which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next.
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for divison, and divides to form two daughter cells.
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions in which the cell grows
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucelous divides
the division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cells
first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nuceleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
region of a chromosomes where the two sister chromatids attach
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
strucutre in an animal cell that helps to organize cell divison
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes seperate and move to opposite ends of the cell (a-away).
Phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.