BIO 202

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Endocrine System

gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of:

Cortisol

Release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

oxytocin

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as

Down-Regulation

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because:

It is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Steroid hormones exert their action by:

Entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by

Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to:

Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells

The major targets of growth hormone are

Bones and skeletal muscles

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP

Heart

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is

Aldosterone

Does calmodulin act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?

no

Can An amino acid derivative be a hormone

yes

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as:

Up-Regulation

The liver is affected b which hormone

the Thyroid hormone

Thyroxine is dfferent from other peptide hormones because

It does not require a second messenger to effect a response

Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:

Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.

Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by

Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?

Calcium

A hormone that regulates gamete production

FSH

Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues

Hormones

These produce testosterone

testes

Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation

Thyroid Hormone TH

Synthesize insulin

Pancreas

Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.

Pituitary gland

Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine.8) Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland

Adrenal medulla

Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland

Adrenal cortex

A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress

ACTH

Hyposecretion of the Adrenal Cortex, fails to function- an autoimmune disorder

Addison's Disease

Arrested physical and mental development due to a congenital lack of thyroid secretion. Present at birth.

cretinism

Hypersecretion of the Adrenal cortex

Cushing's Syndrome

a group of metabolic diseases resulting from defects in INSULIN secretion, insulin action or both

Diabetes Mellitus

a complication of diabetes that damages the retina of the eye

diabetic retinopathy

any disease due to a disorder of the endocrine system

endocrinopathy

An adrenal medulla secretion that is a powerful vasopressor

epinephrine

abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

exophthalmos

Diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies

gestational diabetes

Abnormal overgrowth of the body caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty

gigantism

A hormone that increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream

glucagon

An abnormal enlargement of the THYROID gland that produces a swelling in the front of the neck. Can be due to insufficient iodine in diet.

goiter

An autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, goiter, thyrotoxicosis and exopthalmosis.

Grave's disease

Excessive mammary development in the male

gynecomastia

An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood.

hyperglycemia

A deficiency of thyroid secretion

hypothyroidism

The hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood sugar

insulin

Surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, liver, brain or lung.

lobectomy

Hypothyroidism, Advanced in adults

myxedema

A hormone that stimulates contractions during childbirth

oxytocin

excessive thirst

polydipsia

excessive urination

polyuria

A hormone that helps control inflammation, immune functions, and the ability to withstand illness and injury

steroid

A hormone secreted by the testicles

testosterone

An inflammation of the thymus gland

thymitis

A relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thryoid storm

having the nature, properties or qualities of an adult male

virile

Excessive growth of body hair in females

hirsutism

enlargement of the extremities, seen in gigantism

acromegaly

defective cartilage that affects bone growth

achondroplasia

kidney disease, can be a secondary complication of DM, diabetes mellitus

nephropathy

anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

adenohypophysis

clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures, found in hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia

tetany

Poisioning of the thyroid, an overactive thyroid gland, pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones

thyrotoxicosis

a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (ADH) (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys) resulting in polydipsia and polyuria

diabetes insipidus

thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone

calcitonin

insulin dependant,Requires insulin injections, IDDM, juvenile, less common, failure of insulin synthesis by B cells, may be genetic and autoimmune or triggered by viral infection, less frequent family history, can result in ketoacidosis

type I

NIDDM, Adult onset diabetes is a form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistence and often associated with obesity. Insulin therapy can be used but often isn't required.

type II

excessive sodium (Na) in the blood

hypernatremia

abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling

paresthesia

hormone produced by the pituitary gland

ACTH

hormones that influence sex related characteristics

androgens

nerve pain that runs down the thigh and leg causing extreme pain

sciatica

regulation of the internal environment

homeostasis

master gland controls the secretions of other glands

pituitary gland

secretes directly into the blood stream

thyroid gland

excessive glucose in the blood

hyperglycemia

secretes melatonin, which induces sleep and affects mood

Pineal gland

Catecolamines are produced by the _________ cells.

chromaffin

Which of the following is NOT a function or characteristic of glucocorticoids?
*They function to make sure ATP s available for normal meaboism
*They provide resistance to stress
*They raise blood pressure
*They are anti-inflamatory compounds
*They encourage connecive tissue regeneration

They encourage connecive tissue regeneration

"Moon face," "buffalo hump" on the back, a hanging abdomen, and bruises easily are characteristics of the disorder known as

Cushings syndrome

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the target organ also known as

Upregulation

Which of the following is NOT a principal class of hormones

Biogeninic Amines
Eicosanoids
Glycolipids
Proteins and peptides
Steroids

Glycolipids

The _____ gland declines in size and function with age.

thymus

The ____ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.

Pineal

The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ______.

Thyroid

The anterior pituitary secretes all but
Antidiureic Hormone
Growth Hormone
Gonadotropins
TSH

Antidiuretic Hormone

The release of hormones from the adenohypophysis is controlled by secretions of the

hypothalamus

Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ

Hypothalamus

Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and moneralcorticoids.

Adrenal Glands

Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

Posterior Pituitary

Produces the hormones that promote the development of female secondary sex characteristics at puberty.

Ovaries

Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues

Hormones

Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation

TH

Synthesize insulin

Pancreas

Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis

Pituitary Gland

This hormone is responsible for promoting and maintaining lactation after childbirth

Prolactin

A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress

glucocorticoids

Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine

Adrenal Medulla

Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland

ACTH

Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis

Pituitary Gland

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to

Cortisol

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:

Aldosterone

Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?

Calmodulin

Select the correct statement about hormonal structure or function

An amino acid derivative can be a hormone.

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as

Up-regulation

Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone

Liver

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

It does not require a second messenger to effect a response

Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:

Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.

Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by

Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?

Calcium

Hormones belong to what to molecular groups?

Amino acid Based, and Steroids

What do all Hormones have in common?

chemical molecules, target cells, travel through the blood, effective in minute quantities

Define target Cells:

Cells that are sensitive to a particular hormone.

Located in the throat, bilobed gland connected by an isthmus

thyroid gland

found close to the kidney

adrenal glands

a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine

pancreas

paired glands suspended in the scrotum

testes

ride "horseback" on the thyroid gland

parathyroid

found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production

ovaries

found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth

thymus

found in the roof of the third ventricle

pineal gland

programming of T lymphocytes. A-hormone, B-site of production

A-Thymosin, B-Thymus

regulate blood calcium levels. A-hormone, B-site of production x2

A-PTH, B-Parathyroid Glands, A-calcitonin, B-Thyroid Gland

released in response to stressors. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-Cortisone, B-adrenal cortex; A- epinephrine, B-adrenal medulla

drive development of secondary sexual characteristics. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-estrogen, B-ovaries, A-testosterone, B- testes,

regulate the function of another endocrine gland. A-hormone, B-Site of production x5

A-ACTH, B-Adrenal Cortex A-FSH, B-Ovaries & Testes A-LH, B-Ovaries & Testes, A-TSH, B-Thyroid Gland

mimics the sympathetic nervous system. A-hormone, B-Site of production

A-Epinephrine, B-Adrenal Glands

regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same mixed gland. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-Insulin, B-Pancreas, A-glucagon, B-Pancreas

Directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-Estrogen, B-Ovaries, A-Progesterone, B-Ovaries

Maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-Aldosterone, B-Adrenal Cortex, A-ADH, B-Hypothalamus

Directly involved in milk production and secretion. A-hormone, B-Site of production x2

A-Prolactin, B- Pituitary Gland, A-Oxytocin, B- Hypothalamus

How does the Hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituiutary functioning?

The Hypothalamus a)regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary through releasing and inhibiting hormones and b) synthesizes two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release.

Indicate whether the release of the hormones listed below is stimulated by:
A-Another hormone
B-the nervous system
C-humoral factors

Hormones: ADH, aldosterone, estrogens, insulin, norepinephrine, parathyroid hormone, T4/T3, testosterone, tsh, fsh

ADH-B, Aldosterone- C, Estrogens- A, Insulin-C, norepinephrine-B, parathyroid Hormone-C, T4/T3-A, testosterone- A, TSH/FSH-A

What inadequate hormone, results in tetany?

Hypoparathyroidism, or PTH deficiency

excessive diuresis w/o high blood glucose levels

ADH deficiency

Loss of glucose in the urine

Insulin deficiency

Abnormally small stature, normal proportions

Inadequate amount of GH (Growth Hormone)

low BMR, mental and physical sluggishness

Inadequate amount of T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)

large hands and feet in adult, large facial bones

Overproduction of GH

nervousness, irregular pulse, sweating

Excessive amounts of T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)

demineralization of bones. spontaneous fractures

Excessive amounts of PTH

parafollicular cells of the thyroid produce

Calcitonin

follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid

Produces the hormone: T4/T3 (Thyroid Hormone)

beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) produce

Produce Insulin

alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans) produce

Produce Glucagon

basophil cells of the anterior pituitary produce

Produces the hormone(s): TSH,ACTH,FSH and LH

zona fasciculata cells produce

glucocorticoids

zona glomerulosa cells produce

Produces the hormone: Mineralocorticoids

cheif cells

Produce PTH

acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary

Produces the hormone(s): GH (Growth Hormone) and Prolactin

the difference between the CNS and the Endocrine system?

CNS System is fast acting, electrical messages sent from the brain and spinal cord, and short lived. The Endocrine system is slow acting, chemical messages sent from hormones secreted by ductless glands. Due to this they are long lasting.

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