the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units, a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens
the attitude that society should be governed by an elite group of individuals
Rule of Law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government, the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
limits the actions of the government by listing the powers they do not have
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Legal power established by Marbury vs. Madison to decide which laws are constitutional.
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
a person who opposed a strong national government
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
by James Madison, says how to guard against factions, special interest groups, by extending the sphere and making sure nobody gets too much power
Alex Hamilton; "Impossible to engage in concerted action when each of the 13 states retained virtual power to govern"
Checks and Balance
Each branch has the power to make sure no one branch overpowers the other
two house legislature
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government