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biomechanics

Which branch of science applies the laws of physics, specifically the action of forces on bodies at rest or in motion

allow the patient to do as much work as possible

The ieal way to perform a transfer is to

pelvic girdle fractures, painful inflamed joints, debilitated condition

Which of the following pathalogic conditions requires a special handling: pelvic girdle fractures, painful inflamed joints, debilitated condition

to increase the base of support

When lifting a patient, why would you stand with your feet apart

a decrease in vasomotor tone in blood vessels results in a decrease in oxygen to the brain

Why does orthostatic hypotension occur in patients who have been in bed for long periods

transfer toward the strong side

Which of the following statements applies to all types of wheelchair transfers

Standby assist

Which of the following types of whelchair tranfers requires minimal assistance by the radiographer

determine the patient's abilities by talking to the person

When assessing the wheelchair patient for transfer, it is important to

the stronger person

In a two-person lift, who should lift the torso

obese

For which type of patient is it appropriate to use a hydraulic lift

all of the above, maxi-slide, drawsheet, thin sheets of plastic

Which of the following items is used to transfer patients from a cart to a table

drawsheet

Which of the following cart transfer devices require lifting rather than sliding of the patient

standing on one foot

Which describes the narrowest base of support: standing with the legs 3 feet apart, standing with the legs 1 foot apart, standing on one foot, standing with the feet right next to each other

Stronger side

Transfers should be arranged so that which side of the patient is next to the table

being in bed ofr long periods

Orthostatic hypotension results from which of the following

two-person lift

Which of the following wheelchair transfers is used for non-weight bearing: two-person lift, standby assist, assisted standing pivot

the person doing the transfer stands behind the patient

All of the following statements apply to an assisted standing pivot wheelchair transfer except: The patient pivots toward the table until he feels the table on the back of the thighs, the person doing the transfer stands behind the patient, the patient pushes down on the arms of the chair to assist in rising, as the patient rises, the person doing the transfer also rises and straightens the knees

patients who are unable to assist in the move

In what circumstance should a moving device be used to transfer a patient from a cart to a radiography table

false- in the core

Stability muscles are found in the extremities

false- they should assist if they are possible

A basic principle of lifting states that the patient should never assist in the move

true

By asking a patient what his or her moving capabilities are, the radiographer provides only the assistance needed to move the patient comfortably

true

A transfer belt can be used to transfer a patient safely and effectively

true

Wheelchair wheels should be locked for all transfers

true

If a moving device is not readily available, the patient can be transferred to a table by using a draw sheet

communicate with the patient

An effective way to reduce motion is to

PA chest

All of the following radiography procedures can involve the use of positioning sponges except procedures for the: lateral hand, PA chest, oblique lumbar spine, lateral finger

velcro straps

Which of the following immobilization devices is used for a lateral chest film on a nonambulatory patient

they assist the patient in dorsiflexing the foot

Why are velcro straps used for the axial projection of the calcaneus

Velcro restraints

Which of the following immobilization devices is used to help keep the patient from falling off the table

They must be left in place during initial filming

With trauma patients,what immobilization devices would be applied

place traction on the spine to prevent movement

The purpose of the cervical collar is to

thoracic spine, the pelvis, the lower extremities

Which of the following body parts does a backboard immobilize

it is radiolucent, therefore the entire body can be radiographed through the board, it can be used to lift the entire patient onto the radiographic table

What descries the advantages of using a spine board

An air splint provides stability

What is the difference between an air splint and a traction splint used on the lower leg

femur

Which fracture would traction splints be used

communication with the patient is best accomplished at eye level

What does "To stand tall in pediatric radiology, you have to get down on your knees" mean

sandbags

Which immobilization device is radiopaque

slow the rate of hemorrhage

The purpose of inflatable trousers is to

pigg-o-stat, octastop board, sheet restraint

Which immobilization devices are useful for pediatric imaging

false

Proper immobilization can reduce the need for repeat radiographs and increase radiation exposure

true

Tape, velcro restraints and plexiglas all can be useful immobilization devices

true

Positioning sponges are the most commonly used immobilization devices

false

Traction splints should be removed for radiographic procedures

false

Head clamps help immobilize the head and cervical spine

tympanic

Which body temperature measurement takes the shortest length of time

hyperthermic, febrile

A 42 year old patient has a temperature of 101.3 F. Which of the following terms describes the patient's condition

hypothermia

A patient comes to the emergency department with an oral temperature of 96.6 F. This finding is consistent with

12 to 20

The average adult respiratory rate is

respiration

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the blood circulating in the body is

radial artery, brachial artery, carotid artery

Which arteries can be used for taking a pulse

the peak pressure during contraction of the heart

Systolic pressure is defined as

160/95

All of these adult blood pressure recording would be considered normal except: 100/60, 120/70, 140/80, 160/95

brain, heart, liver

Which of these tissues is most sensitive to hypoxia: brain, heart, liver

air entrainment mask, simple mask, nasal cannula

Which of the following is classified as a low flow oxygen delivery device: air entrainment mask, simple mask, nasal cannula, all of the above

thoracostomy tube

What is the name of the tube that drains the intrapleural space and mediastinum

false

The normal pulse of a 5 yr old child is lower than that of a 32 yr old male patient

true

The major muscle of ventilation is the diaphragm

true

Oxygen is odorless and tasteless gas

true

A physician must prescribe oxygen therapy because it is considered a drug

false

A nasal cannula provides a high concentration of oxygen and therefore is considered a high-flow device

false

An oxygen hood provides oxygen to pediatric patients by full covering their bed

false

The most common location for a central venous catheter is the aorta

true

A swan-ganz catheter monitors pulmonary arterial pressure

ethics

The science of rightness and wrongness of human conduct and character is

law

the regulations established by a government that apply to people within a certain political subdivision is called

morals

Generally accepted customs of right living and conduct and an individual's practice of these customs

norm

The standard set by members of a profession is called

true

The ARRT has a published code of ethics

false

The ARRT Code of ethics provides the radiologic technologist with an operational blueprint of laws of professional conduct

informing the patient

Each of these is a component of ethical analysis except: identifying the problem, developing alternative solutions, selecting the best solution, informing the patient

professional ethics

The internal controls of a profession based on human values or moral principles is called

rights-based ethics

The belief that individual rights provide vital protection of life, liberty, expression and property is called

principle-based ethics

The use of moral principles as a basis for defending a chosen path of action in resolving an ethical dilemma is called

virtue-based ethics

The ethical theory that emphasizes the agents who perform actions and make choices is called

beneficence

Select the ethical principle described by actions that benefit others

autonomy

Select the ethical principle described by actions that respect the independence of other people

veracity

Ethical principle described as being truthful is right

nonmaleficence

The ethical principle described by "above all, do no harm"

fidelity

Ethical principle described by acts that observe convenants or promises

false

Information obtained directly from the patient through observation does not need to be kept confidential

false

A radiologic technologist is free to share a diagnosis with a patient

true

A patient has the right to be informed of and to make decisions about his or her own health care treatment

constitutional, legislative and case law

The three types of law are

constitutional

Which type of law defines individual rights

false

The standard of care for radiologic technology was established in 1914 and remains unchanged

true

A radiographer may be called to testify in a legal case

assault

what occurs when a patient believes that he has been threatened in such a way that the person has reason to fear or expect immediate bodily harm

battery

what occurs when a technologist touches a patient or performs an examination without the patients permission

false imprisonment

The most common claim in a health care facility is

true

Radiologic technologist have an obligation to maintain patient confidentiality

negligence

Failure to use such care as reasonably prudent person would use in like or similar situation is called

res ipsa loquitur

Which term applies when a patient is injured through no fault of his own while in the complete control of another

corporate liability

This theory requires the hospital or health care entity to be responsible for the quality of care delivered to consumers

true

Informed consent requires that patients have all of the information they need to make decisions about their health care

false

Respondeat superior translates into "the thing speaks for itself"

true

Radiologic technologist are legally liable for their actions in the daily performance of diagnostic procedures

true

Health care providers who do not remain current in the field may be liable under the legal theory of medical malpractice

true

The general definition of the standard of care is that degree of skill, knowledge and care ordinarily possessed and employed by a member of the profession in good standing

False

approximately 90% of all medical negligence claims are somehow related to diagnostic imaging

false

A person must be informed of the reason for restraint and the possible risks if restraints are not used after the restraints have been applied

sterilization

Which of the following terms describes the complete destruction or elimination of all living microorganisms

handwashing

The most important way to prevent the spread of infections is

viruses

Microorganisms that need a host to reproduce and are unresponsive to antibiotics are called

protozoa

Which of the following microorganisms is able to ingest food particles and may be equipped with a rudimentary digestive system

a mosquito, tick, or flea, a fomite, such as a cassette, West Nile virus

Exogenous mode of transmission includes

immunocompromised individuals

Which is most susceptible to a nosocomial infection

antiseptic

What chemical method of asepsis is applied topically

medial asepsis

Handwasing falls into which category of asepsis

patients with tuberculosis, pathogenic organisms that remain in the air

Airbone precautions are used for which of the following

droplet precautions

Which precautions is/are used when pathogens are disseminated by means of large particulate droplets expelled from the patient

false

Standard precautions are used to protect the patient only

true

Contact precaution techniques required two health care providers

true

Their morphology, genetic constitution, and biochemistry classify bacteria

false

Fungi carry their own genetic information as either RNA or DNA

false

The incubation period for all infectious diseases is 1 week

true

An example of an endogenous mode of transmission is acquiring a staphylococcal infection after a finger cut

true

A physician can cause an iatrogenic infection

true

Hepatitis B is an example of a virus transmitted as a blood-borne pathogen

false

Medial asepsis reduces the number of infectious agents to zero by means of sterilization

true

Radiology departments use halogen chlorine and iodine as a bactericidal agent

stomach

A nasogastric NG tube is placed though the nasopharynx into the

removing flatus from the stomach

A primary purpose of the NG tube is

false

There is no discomfort associated with a nasogastric tube

false

For insertion of the NG tube, the patient is placed in the Trendelenburg position

true

An NG tube should be lubricated with water-soluble lubricating jelly just before insertion

fluoroscopy, aspiration of gastric contents, ausculation

Placement of the NG tube can be verified by

Levin, Salem-sump, Cantor

What are some examples of an NG tube

true

Urinals are provided to patients who are not ambulatory

false

Male urinals and female urinals are identical

false

A radiographer would not need to wear gloves while assisting a patient with a urinal

true

Nondisposable bedpans must be sterilized between uses between patients

urination, defecation

A bedpan may be used for

false

Sterile gloves must be worn while assisting a patient with a bedpan

defecation

A cleansing enema is used to promote

hypotonic enema

A tap enema is also called a

true

A hypertonic enema may be prescribed to prepare the colon for a barium enema

NPO after midnight, clear liquids the day before, a cleansing enema the morning of the examination

Bowel preparation for a barium enema may include

colon

A barium enema is used to diagnose pathologic conditions of the

damage to the rectal wall from overinflation of the balloon catheter

The most common complication of a barium enema is

barium and air

The two contrast media used for a barium enema are

glucagon

The smoth muscle relaxant given to a patient before a double contrast barium enema is

polyps

A double contrast barium enema is indicated for

true

A patient should increase his fluid intake for several days after a barium enema

true

A colostomy is an opening made from the bowel to the outside of the body

false

All colostomies are permanent

alert to comatose

Levels of consciousness range from

lethargy, irritability, slowing respiration

What are indications of a deteriorating head injury

maintain an open airway

With a deteriorating head injury, the first priorty shuld be

shock

A general term that indicates a failure of the circulatory system to support vital body functions

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