A self-contained community for people, such as monks or nuns, who have taken religious vows.
Knowledge and culture passed down from one generation or civilization to another.
The language of the Romans. During the Middle Ages, Latin served as a common language for educated people throughout Europe.
The holy book of Islam. In Arabic, it means "reading."
Roman Catholic Church
The only Christian church in western Europe until the sixteenth century.
A contagious disease that is out of control and kills many people.
Religion based on the Qu'ran. Means submission to the will of God.
A person who travels to a holy place for religious reasons.
Roman armed forces. They were so powerful that during their peak, they controlled most of Europe, southeast Asia, and northern Africa.
A fighter who battled at public shows. Most were slaves.
The first twelve disciples, or followers of Jesus.
A person tortured or killed because of his or her religious beliefs.
The group that one belongs to in a society. Class can be determined by money, role in society, or parentage.
The head of the Catholic Church.
The art and science of designing buildings.
The religion in which followers believe that they have a special relationship with God as His chosen people. Their special book is the Torah.
A person sent out by a church to convert people.
A picture made with many pieces of stone or glass fixed in place.
A religion that was created when Jesus and his apostles felt that their religious leaders had forgotten about the spirit of the Jewish Law.
Alexander the Great
Conquered many lands and spread Greek culture as far as India.
Constantine the Great
The first Christian Roman Emperor. Refortified Byzantium and created Istanbul (_________tinople, Ipoli.)
Justinian and Theodora
Byzantine Emperors that followed after Constantine. Had brilliant minds and were interested in many subjects. Collected all the written laws into the Justinian Code, and brought reforms to give women the right to keep any property they inherited.
The most successful ruler of the Franks.
Included Clovis I. After his death, his children were not capable leaders, and the royal family became famous for its treachery and murderous infighting. The kingdom fell into chaos because of them.
A fine that had to be paid if property was stolen or a person was injured or killed.
Rebuilt the Frank's civilization after his father threw out the Merovingian rulers. Expanded the empire, and sent out missi dominici to make sure people were treated properly. Tried to make things better for the serfs and tradespeople, and was a strong supporter of Christianity.
Alfred the Great
An early ruler of Anglo-Saxton England. Lost many battles with the Vikings, but left western and southern England united and prosperous.
Patron saint of Ireland. Brought the Irish Christianity and changed them from their former bloodthirsty religion, called Druidism.
A Scandinavian poet who recited poems, stories, and histories at formal gatherings since the Vikings were illiterate.
A parliament where free adults could give their opinions on important matters. Viking kings were not crowned, instead, they were lifted up standing on shields at the Thing.
Payments that gave countries peace for a short time from the Vikings.