Gross Anatomy 1 Final Joints and Disorders

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Dr Mekow's Final Exam

Classification of Hip Joint.

Ball and Socket

Articulation of Hip Joint

Head of femur and Acetabulum of pelvis

Ligaments involved with the Hip Joint

Iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, pubofemoral, transverse acetabular, capitis femoris ligament

What is the strongest ligament in the body?

Iliofemoral Ligament

What is the classification of the Knee Joint?

Ginglymus (femur and tibia) and Plane-gliding (femur and patella)

What are the articulations of the Knee Joint?

Condyles of the Femur, Condyles of the Tibia, and Patella

What are the Extrinsic Ligaments of the Knee Joint?

Ligamentum patella, Lateral (fibular) Collateral, Medial (tibial) Collateral, and Arcuate and Oblique Popliteal

What are the Intrinsic Ligaments of the Knee Joint?

Anterior Cruciate, Posterior Cruciate, Medial Meniscus, Lateral Meniscus, Coronary Ligaments, and Transverse Ligament

What is the Nerve Supply to the Hip Joint?

Femoral Nerve, Obturator Nerve, and Sciatic Nerve

What is the Nerve Supply to the Knee Joint?

Femoral Nerve, Obturator Nerve, Common Fibular Nerve, and Tibial Nerve

What is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee?

Medial Collateral Ligament

What shape is the Medial Meniscus?

C-shaped

What are the names of the bursae associated with the knee?

Subcutaneous Prepatellar Bursa, Subcutaneous Infrapatella Bursa, Deep Infrapatellar Bursa, and Suprapatellar Bursa

What is the classification of the Superior Tibiofibular Joint?

Plane Gliding

What are the articulations of the Superior Tibiofibular Joint?

Head of the Fibula, Fibular Articular Facet of the Tibia

What are the ligaments associated with the Superior Tibiofibular Joint?

Anterior and Posterior Tibiofibular Ligaments and the Interosseous Membrane

What is the nerve supply to the Superior Tibiofibular Joint?

Common Fibular Nerve

Movements of the Superior and Inferior Tibiofibular joints are complementary to what?

Movements of the ankle; no muscles involved (minimal movement)

What is the classification of the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint?

Syndesmosis

What are the articulations of the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint?

Lateral Malleolar facet of the Fibula and Fibular Notch of the Tibia

What are the ligaments associated with the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint?

Anterior and Posterior Tibiofibular Ligaments and the Interosseous Membrane

What is the nerve supply to the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint?

Deep Fibular Nerve

What is the classification of the Ankle Joint?

Ginglymus

What are the articulations of the Ankle Joint?

Distal Tibia, Lateral Malleolar fossa of the Fibula, and the Body of the Talus

What are the Medial Ligaments associated with the Ankle Joint?

Anterior Tibiotalar, Tibionavicular, Tibiocalcaneal, and Posterior Tibiotalar

What are the Lateral Ligaments associated with the Ankle Joint?

Anterior Talofibular, Calcaneofibular, Posterior Talofibular

What is the nerve supply to the Ankle Joint?

Deep Fibular Nerve and the Tibial Nerve

What are the most commonly injured ligaments of the Ankle Joint?

Cacaneofibular and the Anterior Talofibular

What are the medial ligaments of the Ankle Joint collectively known as?

Deltoid Ligament

What actions take place at the Ankle Joint?

Plantar and Dorsal Flexion ONLY

What is the classification of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?

Plane Gliding

What are the articulations of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?

Calcaneous, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular

What is the Spring Ligament of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?

Plantar Calcaneonavicular

What are the Short Plantar Ligaments of the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?

Long Plantar and Plantar Calcaneocuboid

What is the major support for the Medial Longitudinal Arch?

Spring Ligament (Plantar Calcaneonavicular)

What movement goes on at the Subtalar Talocalcaneonavicular Calcaneocuboid Joint?

Inversion and Eversion

What is Pott's Fracture?

A fracture dislocation of the ankle, which occurs when the foot is forcibly everted or externally rotated. It may result in a tear of the deltoid ligament, fracture of the fibula, and a fracture of the distal tibia

What is Plantar Fascitis?

An overuse injury that causes pain on the medial aspect of the calcaneous and along the medial longitudinal arch. If a calcaneal spur is present, the condition may be termed "heel spur syndrome"

What is Plantar Nerve Reflex?

Stroking the skin of the lateral plantar aspect of the foot. Tests segmental levels L4-S2. Normal response is flexion of the toes. An abnormal isgn is the Babinski Sign (fan toes)

What is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?

A condition in which the tibial nerve or medial plantar nerve is compressed in the area behind the medial malleolus (the tarsal tunnel). Pain, which may be accompanied by paresthesia and numbness, is noted along the medial malleolus and plantar aspect of the foot and toes. Because of its frequency in runners, it is often called "Jogger's Foot"

What is Hallux Valgus?

An enlargement and deforming of the 1st MP joint in which the joint deviates laterally. The patient cannot move their first digit away from their second. It may become permanent (Hallux Rigidis). May lead to the formation of bunions.

What are Bunions?

Growth of new bone over the medial aspect of the 1st metatarsal, which causes the surrounding soft tissue to swell

What is a Hammer Toe?

A common deformity of the 2nd and 3rd toes. The MP and DIP joints are hyperextended which the PIP joint is flexed. Corns may develop over the flexed joint.

What are Corns?

A thickening of the keratin layer of the skin

What is Turf Toe?

The is a hyperextension injury to the plantar capsular ligament of the 1st MP joint. Often seen in football players playing on artificial turf.

What is Club Foot?

A structural foot deformity, usually congenital, involving the subtalar joint. The bones are abnormally fused and positioned. The foot is usually plantar flexted and inverted

What is Morton's Neuroma?

The term used for a normal foot with relation to the arches

What is Pes Planus?

The clinical term used to describe "flat feet". There are two types:
Flexible - the condition is congenital and only visualized in weight bearing stance
Rigid - can be congenital or aquired, and is visualized in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing stance

What is Pes Cavus?

A condition in which the medial longitudinal arch is unusually high, also known as "clawfoot"

What is Developmental Dysplasia?

A congenital dislocation of the hip joint in which the head of the femur ends up superior to the external surface of the ilium. The affected limb appears shorter and inability to adduct the thigh is characteristic. More commonly seen in females

What is an Aquired/Traumatic Dislocation?

May occur during an auto accident when the thigh is flexed, adducted and medially rotated. Posterior dislocation is most common and may damage the sciatic nerve. Anterior dislocation is rare but may damage the obturator nerve

What is Prepatellar Bursitis?

AKA Housemaid's Knee. Caused by friction between the skin and the patella

What is Suprapatellar Bursitis?

Inflammation of the suprapatellar bursa caused by abrasions or penetrating wounds. Infection may spread to the knee joint

What is an Unhappy Triad?

Term used to describe a tear of the mediacollateral ligament, the medial meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament

What is the Anterior Drawer Test?

An orthopedic test in which the tibia is pushed backward under the femur. When the tibia can be pulled excessively, the test is "positive" and indicates a torn PCL

What is Osgood-Schlatter's Disease?

This is an avulsion injury of the secondary growth center for the tibial tuberosity. The patient complains of pain in the area of the tibial tuberosity. Very common in adolescent athletes

What is Os Trigonum?

Term used when the lateral tubercle does not unite with the body of the talus and ossified independently

What is a Stress Fracture?

Fine hairline fractures that occur without evidence of soft tissue injury. Commonly occur on the shaft of the tibia (runners), the navicular (high impact sports) and the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals (walkers)

What is Compartment Syndrome?

Term used to describe an increase of pressure within a myofascial compartment. Typically exercise induced when there is an increase in blood volume within muscles. Causes pain and may result in ischemia. Can be acute or chronic.

What are Shin Splints?

Generic term used to describe anterior leg pain not due to compartment syndrome or stress fractures. More descriptive than diagnositc. Recent literature has been referring to this as "medial tibial stress syndrome"

What is Ski Boot Syndrome?

Term used to describe a compression neuropathy of the deep fibular nerve. May see weakened dorsiflexion and extension of toes, as well as sensory loss between the 1st and 2nd toes

What is a High Ankle Sprain?

A sprain involving the Inferior Tibiofibular Joint

What is a Calcaneal Tendon Reflex?

Tests segmental innervation of S1 and S2

What is Intermittent Claudication?

An occlusive peripheral artery disease characterized by painful leg cramps which develop during walking and diappear with rest. Palpating the posterior tibial artery is a useful screening test for this in the lower extremity

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