Films in this tradition are unusually self-conscious of their generic identity and are clearly and visibly engaged in commenting on the formal play with the generic paradigms that preceded them.
- recurring symbolic images that carry meaning from film to film.
- Objects and setting often furnish iconography for a genre.
- Tommy gun from a ford = Gangster
- Kimono and sword = samurai
- Even actors can become iconic
o Judy Garland = Musical
o John Wayne = Western
o Arnold Schwarzenegger = Action
o Jim Carey = comedy
In the tradition of the revisionist genres, these films within a certain genre change to reflect different cultural and historical communities.
This describes traditions for each genre and help to differentiate between genres
principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques used by henry ford
economics of predictability
The process whereby the production, regulation, and distribution of materials are done in ways that can anticipate the continual desire for those materials and deliver them in a manner that efficiently satisfies those needs.
A set of conventions and formulas that meet an audience's expectations about characters, narrative, and visual style.
One of the most significant genres that included taming the American West, the rugged American Cowboy hero, masculine, America as the world's policeman, White supremacy
the images and symbolic representations that are traditionally associated with a person or a subject
It usually says there is no morality or right or wrong or good or bad. Influenced by an experimental, contemporary art movement associated with post-industrial societies. It usually breaks the boundaries of art, challenges the idea of originality, and often draws on several art traditions.
The latter phase of a genre's evolution in which many of its values and conventions are challenged or subject to skeptical scrutiny.
language that can get across facts to the audience. foreigners can watch US films just fine.
A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.
In films and film-based videotape, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies.
-stuff painted on a film strip
- presenting idea/emotion in a lyrical manner
a film composed entirely of footage from other films
Explores properties of the medium: strips of film, sound waves, cameras, and lenses; Serene Velocity; Wavelength.
"Structural film" artists pursued instead a more simplified, sometimes even predetermined art. The shape of the film was crucial, the content peripheral. This term should not be confused with the literary and philosophical term structuralism.
Sitney identified four formal characteristics common in Structural films, but all four characteristics are not usually present in any single film:
fixed camera position (an apparently fixed framing)
flicker effect (strobing due to the intermittent nature of film)
rephotography (off the screen)
A type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to one another through repetition and variation of such visual qualities as shape, color, rhythm, and direction of movement.
stop motion cinematography
A technique that allows the camera operator to stop and start the camera in order to facilitate changing the subject while the camera is not shooting.
- A term applied to frame-by-frame movement of people and ordinary objects.
Pictures are taken frame by frame
is a type of animation made by taking photos of clay characters, moving the characters slightly between each shot.
process of photographing flat artwork, typically a combination of characters and background, used until 1990s, background art remains relatively unchanging - most movement occurs in the foreground characters.
The animation appears to have depth. It is more realistic or life-like in appearance. Examples include video games such as Call Of Duty: Black Ops and Halo.
when a film company controls all three facets of production, distribution, and exhibition. This was the classic Hollywood era style. Then in 1948, supreme court said that this was a violation of anti-trust laws.
The French New Wave
1960's style of films--no big name stars, no fake sets, real life situations. Jean-Luc Godard.
1. caheris du cinema: a French film magazine that supports the directors being responsible for the content of the film. They are all about the directors
4. formal experimentation
5. open-minded narratives
7. documentary style filming.
Italian Neo Realism
(1944-1952) a style of film characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors. Italian neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economical and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life: poverty and desperation.
1. not limited by national borders.
2. Dreams fantasies and memories. They are less interested in telling literal narratives.
3. Ambiguity and ambivalence. The character's aren't necessarily likeable or respectable. The tend to be far slower paced.
4. Unresolved narratives.
An art film is typically a serious, independently made film aimed at a niche audience rather than a mass audience. Uses different styles than normal hollywood films which includes a social realism style; an emphasis on the authorial expressivity of the director; and a focus on the thoughts and dreams of characters, rather than presenting a clear, goal-driven story.
American Independent Cinema
The money and producers come from outside the studio system. But they are usually distributed by the studios.
Sometimes it means that it is a different vision for film than the normal studio does.
ways they are different:
a. regional filmmaking---
b. style—different. Perhaps episodic.
But they usually have a sense of closure like in hollywood films. and it is driven by cause and effect.
Cahiers Du Cinema
"cinema notebooks". A vastly influential journal which gathered about it a group of young critics-Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette, and Eric Rohmer- who were to become the major directors of the New Wave.
It supports the directors being responsible for the content of their films.
Jean Luc Godard
large influence in French New Wave who used improv, incomplete scripts, and on location shooting
Translates as "author." A term for film directors that was popularized by French film critics and refers to film directors with their own distinctive style.
there is always a director making choices and therefore no such thing as objectivity.
(the study of knowledge): purpose of documentaries is to give you knowledge.
function as a go-between between reality and the viewer; a documentary film is never an objective, indisputable truth, rather it is the product of the selections, recordings, and manipulations of the filmmakers
(e.g. March of the Penguins):
Believes in absolute truth; it presents facts unambiguously. "These are the facts...
Voice-over narration is very common in this mode. There's a sense that they are trying to persuade you that this is the truth.
Nature documentaries are commonly this type of mode.
Modes: how are the filmmakers approaching the material? How are they constructing these ideas of knowledge and truth?
(e.g. Koyaanisqatsi): a sense of continuity (in terms of time and space) is thrown out. It feels much more abstract. They will jump around in time and space. Things are made to be about mood and tone. There's a sense that the truth is not absolute, but is a perspective. We don't typically have characters who help us navigate the truth. But we understand that truth is a construction of the filmmaker.
(e.g. Salesman, a portrait doc): does not want to have voice-over narration telling you the facts; it wants to record the facts; will not interfere with the facts. The filmmaker doesn't interact with the subjects, interview them, or tell them to do anything. The idea is that if you're around a subject long enough, they'll forget that you're there. Lots of hand-held cameras.
in this mode the documentarist becomes a participant observer. Records interactions between filmmaker and subject. Lots of interviews, a lot of hand held camera.
self-aware. This film is about its own making. , Documentary is a construct or representation. Acknowledges that this is a movie; not pretending it's an objective approach. Most self-conscious, stream-of-consciousness, and self-questioning mode. Draws attention to its own making, style, assumptions, and structure.
there is a sense that there is no such thing as absolute truth, there are only constructed truths, and every individual has his own truth.
in which modes is absolute truth kept?
[ P.O.E.] participatory, observational, and expository.
cinema verite; documentary style in which the filmmaker attempts to remain as unobstrusive as possible
centers on scenes from the life of a compelling person
Social Commentary Documentary
addresses social problems (Michael Moore)
techniques/characteristics of documentaries
Real people: people are not coached. Though actors are sometimes used for reenactments.
Artifacts: can be personal effects, for instance in a portrait documentary (old home movies, pictures); military artifacts from a wartime documentary.
Archival footage: footage from other sources like TV or old newsreels
Informative language: because the notion of knowledge and facts are so crucial in documentaries, it's very common for them to use title cards to give us factual information. This also includes voice-over narration, sometimes referred to as Voice of God narration.
Editing as writing: the making of a documentary film is often much more time-consuming than making a fictional film. Typically you have to edit as you go, and you're constantly shooting. A script guides shooting for a fictional film, but there's no script for a documentary. For a fictional film, you might shoot 30 hours for 2 hours of film. For a documentary, you might have to shoot 100 hours to get 60 minutes of film.
they reaffirm capitalism, re-affirm Judeo-Christian values, American culture. Every American is perceived to be upper middle class. This is mainstream.
they wanted to deal with the social problems of the day. He said a neo-realistic film would be following a man throughout his day for 90 minutes. This had a dramatic influence on documentaries.
often controversial films. john cassavetes. - he is considered the father of the independent cinema. When someone makes their own independent films and tries to get them distributed. John was an actor and he used his acting money to make his films.
that you couldn't depict certain things like homosexuality and would make haze rules to determine what would go against community standards. Underground cinema revolted against this.