maintaining a strict housekeeping standard to reduce the number of pathogens present
With the past century's remarkable advances in identifying, preventing, & treating infectious diseases
the threat of infection is as great as it has ever been
Specific measures to help break the cycle of infection include all of the following except:
not allowing infected patients in the office
The single most effective way to break the growth cycle of tuberculosis bacteria is to prevent spread of the disease by
containing the pathogen by always using a tissue, & then discarding of it in a biohazard receptable
An opportunist infection
is possible because a host's resistance is low
A pt. exposed to a pathogen can be contagious through all 4 stages of the resulting illness but most often is contagious in the
Microorganisms capable of causing diseases are also called
When antibodies are introduced from Outside the body, the immunity is called
An endogenous infection occurs when routine body processes malfunction or are abnormal, while an EXogenous infection is one caused by
the induction of a pathogen from outside the body
An acute viral disease that involves gray matter of the spinal cord is called
In addition to a resevoir host, a means of exit, & a a means of transmission, the cycle of infection needs
a means of entrance & a susceptible host
A bacterial infection of the nose, throat, & larynx that can be fatal if left untreated is called
Single-celled organisms found in soil & water that usually do NOT cause disease are called
A disease that is transmitted via droplets & is very dangerous to the fetus if a pregnant woman contracts the disease is
In order for a microorganism to grow it requires
the proper temperature
A form of transmission of pathogens that involves droplets is called
Microorganisms cause damage to the body by
depleting nutrients or other materials needed by the cells & tissues they invade
the cycle of infection begins with a reservoir host that provides the pathogen with nutrition & a place to multiply could be
animal, insect, or humans
The scientist responsible for introducing aseptic techniques through the use of antiseptics was
The microorganism's disease producing power is called
Ignaz Semmeliveis & a second physician promote handwashing as a means of reducing the spread of pueperal fever to women in childbirth. Who was that 2nd physician?
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Single-celled organisms that reproduce quickly & are a major cause of disease are called
Of the non-specific defenses is a process whereby special white blood cells engulf & digest pathogens. This process is called
The body has the ability to defend against the multitudes of pathogens it is exposed to on a daily basis because of the strong mechanical barrier that resist penetration. What is this barrier called?
The condition of being resistant to pathogens & the diseases they cause is called
You have had the mumps. Your son develops the mumps, but you do not get sick YOu have
Natural active immunity- Your body is exposed to a disease & creates antibodies against it that protects you when you are re-exposed
A 2 week old infant is exposed to the same virus its mother had during pregnancy, but the infant does not become ill It has
Natural passive immunity- Occurs when the mother's immunity crosses the placenta to the fetus
A health care worker receives a hepatitis B vaccine. He has
Artificial passive immunity- occurs when you are injected with a pre-made antibodies that protect you against a disease temporarily
A 65 year old patient gets a flu shot. She has
Artificial active immunity- occurs when an injection of organisms that do not cause disease cause you to produce antibodies to protect you from the disease.
Which of the following physicians demonstrated that puerperal fever, a disease that was responsible for the death of women in childbirth was carried from the patient to patient by doctors?
Oliver Wendell Holmes
An infection by microorganisms that can cause disease only when a host's resistance is low is a
Factors related to the host's susceptibility is
age & nutritional status
Beneficial bacterial found in the body that create a barrier against pathogens are called
The destruction of infectious agents on an object or surface by direct application of chemical or physical means is
Which of the following physicians concluded that pueperal fever was a communicable disease?
In which way does a person develop a natural active immunity?
from exposure to organisms that cause a disease
The condition in which pathogens are absent or controlled is
The first line of defense people have against disease is
Which of the following is part of the sanitation of equipment?
soak instrument in disinfectant solution
Coughing & sneezing increase an individual's susceptibility to disease.
Phagocytes protect the body from infection by
finding, surrounding, & digesting intruding microorganisms
An endogeneous infection is one that is caused by the introduction of a pathogen from outside the body.
bacterial that can cause severe food poisoning
Louis Pasteur stated that
disease is caused by microorganisms
Is cholera caused by a virus?
Patients with chicken pox experience
an itchy rash that begins as tiny red bumps & eventually becomes fluid-filled blisters
Croup is a condition characterized by
a harsh , barking cough, difficulty breathing; hoarseness & low-grade fever
35 to 50 % of adolescents who become infected with the Epstein-Barr virus develop infectious flu & complain of fever, sore throat & swollen lymph nodes
A disadvantage of gas sterilization is
it uses ethylene oxide which is hazardous to humans & to the environment
Which of the following is commonly used in the laboratory setting to provide a measure of protection against transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
Which of the following methods of infection control requires the use of an autoclave?
Which of the following is used to disinfect surfaces & soak rubber equipment before sanitation?
Which of the following is permissible in ultrasonic cleaning?
reuse the ultrasonic cleaning solution for several baths
Which of the following is used to clean delicate instruments or instruments with moving parts?
Which of the following is used both as a disinfectant & antiseptic, but its effectiveness is limited by the presence of blood products, mucus, or soap?
Which factor has an impact on the effectiveness of a disinfectant?
evaporation can alter the chemical makeup of the solution
The cleaning process that is required for all instruments that penetrate the skin or that comes in contact with normally sterile areas of the tissue & internal organs is
Which of the following can be disinfected & reused without sterilization?
glasses & enamelware
Sterilization is the only reliable measure for
eliminating blood-borne pathogens
Can disinfectants, or cleaning products be used on human tissues?
If there is any doubt as to whether an item is sterile or not
consider it unsterile
When you work with a patient who has infectious tuberculosis
wear a personal respirator to prevent inhalation of the bacteria
Medical asepsis depends on a completely sterile environment that eliminates ALL microorganisms
Sterile items should only touch
Which one do Health care workers become infected far more frequently on the job with the HIV infection or with the hepatitis B infection
According to OSHA are all health care workers required to be tested for HIV and HBV?
Does disinfectant kill bacteria spores?
The most effective method for preventing the spread of AID/HIV infection through sexual contact is
avoid high-risk sexual activity
Which of the following are symptoms of mycobacterium avium?
night sweats, fever, & weight loss
which disease called the fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B 19 & occurs mostly in children?
the appropriate way to dispose of needles to prevent the spread of AIDS/HIV infection is to
dispose of needles in a puncture-proof , biohazardous waster container
Leukopenia is defined a
a reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood
Which disease frequently leads to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)?
human T-cell lymphotrophic virus
Which classification of drugs would be used to treat the anemia related to AZT therapy?
The disadvantage of treating HIV?AIDS early is
loss of treatment options in the future
A disease that spreads from person to person primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes is
Your best course of action in the prevention of blood-borne infectious disease is
to assume that every pt. is contaminated with blood-borne pathogens
The MAIN risk of hepatitis B & C is sexual activity
Patients who completely recover from Hepatitis B or C do not remain infected with the virus for life.
An employer may offer a vaccination for HBV infection at a small charge to the health care worker.
If you are exposed to hepatitis B & have not been vaccinated, you can
receive a postexposure inoculation of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)
Over a period of time in most cases, HIV infection
develops into AIDS which results in death.
Most cases of HIV infection in health care workers occur as a result of mucocutaneous exposure.
HIV infection is by far the single largest risk factor for
the development of tuberculosis infection into the active form of the disease.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRT's)
block the ability of HIV to make copies of itself
Does every state must report a patient who has HIV infection by name to the Center for Disease Control & Prevention?
The immunization that is highly recommended for elderly patients is the
A pt. in room 4 has had a nosebleed, & after he leaves the room, you notice that there is blood on the pillowcase. You should
don gloves, gently fold the pillowcase, & place it in a red biohazardous laundry bag that has the biohazardous symbol on it
A "quick-opening tab" can be created by
folding a small portion of the tape back onto itself
A common cause of low temperature in the autoclave is
failure to preheat the autoclave chamber
Whenever possible, you should educate patients about preventing the transmission of disease; in case of disease, educate
regarding treatment of the disease
A corrosive & irritant to body tissues that is used to clean equipment is
The infection-control step after sanitation & before sterilization to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms is called
According to OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standards of 1991, any potential infectious waste materials must be
discarded into or held for processing in biohazardous waste containers
Which of the steps below is NOT part of a surgical scrub?
Use paper towels to dry hands on after washing
When you are ready to clean & scrub instruments you should
put on properly fitting, intact utility gloves
If you are running a load of instruments & wrapped packs, you should place the tray
containing the instruments BELOW the tray containing the wrapped packs
A cleaner that generates sound waves through a cleaning solution to loosen contaminants is called
an ultrasound cleaner
A category 111 task of standard precautions as outlined by OSHA
does not require any special protection
You are in the workroom, & a fellow staff member has dropped a glass & cut his hand. As he was trying to stop the bleeding, he left droplets of blood along the floor to the bathroom. YOu should
after seeing that he is okay, don gloves, pick the glass up with tongs, & follow office procedures for cleaning up a blood spill
If a member of the medical staff is infected with HIV or HBV, she should
not perform any procedures that might result in exposure for the patient without the advice of an expert review panel
After packs & instruments are sterilized in the autoclave, you must store them in
a clean, dry location
When you unload the items from the autoclave, place the items
in a place that is at room temperature
Transmission-based precautions include the use of goggles, masks&/or a respirator when a patient may have an infection
that could be spread by droplets, airborne transmission, or contact
which of the following penalties would occur if someone discovered that you repeatedly placed old dressings that have blood on them in the regular trash?
a fine of up to 70,000 dollars with a 5,000 dollar minimum & up to 6 months imprisonment if someone died
You are going to give a child his immunization . You notice that he has a runny nose. You should
take the child's temperature & if it is normal, go ahead & give the immunization
Tags, inserts, tapes, tubes or strips that confirm that the items in the autoclave have been exposed to the correct volume of steam at the correct temperature for the correct length of time are called
Personal protective equipment includes
gloves, masks, & protective clothes
The process of cleaning instruments & equipment with detergents & scrubbing as needed is called
The best way to prevent the spread of infection by decreasing the susceptibility of the host is to have the patient
In order for the steam to reach each instrument in a sterile pack, you should
wrap the pack loosely & have the instruments NOT touch each other in the pack
Any instruments or supplies that will penetrate a patient's skin have to be
Symptoms of hepatitis include
jaundice, fatigue, vomiting, & joint pain
Blood borne pathogens can be transmitted by
touching infected blood, tissue , or body fluids
Which of the following blood borne pathogens poses the greatest risk?
two variants of the hepatitis virus (HBV and HCV)
An AIDS pt has coating of the tongue, reddened patches on the hard mucous membrane of the mouth, & patches on her tongue, You suspect she has
In addition to supporting & accepting a dying pt. no matter how he reacts to the dying process, you can also support the dying pt. by
providing referrals to hospices
Besides increasing the time between infections, improving the quality of life & reducing maternal- infant transmission of the virus, the treatment goal for HIV and AIDS patients is to
reduce transmission of HIV to uninfected people
The test that can confirm positive specimens of HIV infections in increasing numbers are
IV drug users & women
AIDS patients may experience symptoms such as
gastrointestinal complaints, depression, & Kaposi's sarcoma
When working with teenagers it is important to
help them realize that communicable diseases can happen to anyone & show them how to prevent contracting communicable diseases.
A reaction that occurs when the body is unable to mount a normal response to the invasion by a pathogen is
an anergic reaction
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test confirms
the presence of antibodies developed by the body's immune system in response to an initial HIV infection
A chronic disorder found in AIDS patients who have symptoms of fever cough & breathing difficulties & that is often overlooked is called
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
When working with pts who have AIDS, you should take precautions to prevent the spread of infections between
patients, yourself & the patient, and when you are working with equipment that may be contaminated.
Extreme itching, dysuria, & thick adherent discharge are symptoms of
Symptoms of syphilis are
chancre sores that appear on the tongue, lips, or genitalia
Adherence to OSHA guidelines regarding the spread of blood borne pathogens is important because
you must assume that every pt is contaminated with blood borne pathogens to prevent transmission during any procedure or treatment
When reporting a communicable disease, in order to complete the required forms, you will need to know the
disease identification code
Fusion inhibitor medication
block the entrance of the virus into the human cell
Toxoplasmosis is a disease that is found in
The therapy of combining three or more HIV drugs is called
highly active antiretroviral therapy
During the 3rd stage of syphilis , the pt may experience
tumors of the skin, bones, & liver, as well as dementia
A moderately contagious disease seen mainly in children & often called the fifth disease is
The advantage of being treated early for HIV is
the suppression of viral replication, thus a reduction in the risk of the pts transmitting HIV to others.
MAC is responsible for
97 % of the nontuberculosis bacterial infections in AIDS patients
Which of the following are characteristics of eukaryotic cells?
They have a complex cell structure containing a nucleus & specialized organelles in the cytoplasm
The most common way to classify bacteria is according to their
Which of the following is an example of a microorganism that is classified as a prokaryotic cell?
Examples of viruses include
chicken pox, croup, hepatitis, & influenza
Which of the following is a characteristic of a subcellular microorgainism?
a non-cellular structure in which the nucleic acid is surrounded by a protein coat
Which of the following are characteristic of viruses
they are among the smallest infecious agents & cannot be seen with a regular microscope
An example of a subcellular microorganism is a
A bacteria that is spherical, round, or ovoid is a
which of the following are characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
they are simple-structured with a single chromosome & no organelles
Bacteria that are comma shaped are
Trichinella spiralis is
a roundworm that enters the human body in infected meat that is eaten raw or insufficiently cooked
The most common device for obtaining cultures is the
A stool specimen that is mixed with urine is
not an appropriate specimen for examination
Is dry ice used for packing when sending a specimen through the mail??
When preparing a wet mount, what is mixed with the specimen on the glass slide?
a drop of 0.9% sodium chloride is mixed with a small amount of the specimen
The optimal temperature to promote the growth of bacteria is
37 degrees Centigrade
Bacteria placed in a culture plate grow sufficiently within one hour.
In an antimibrobial sensitivity test, a result of "resistant" means no growth
Viruses are found in soil & water.
You have labeled a specimen container with the pts name, date, time of collection, doctors name and your initials. what have you forgotten to include?
Source of the Specimen
A way that microorganisms cause damage is to
produce toxins that damage cells and tissues
When preparing a wet mount, always use a
coverslip over the mixture
Why is rickettsia different from all other bacteria
it can live and grow within other living cells and is commonly found in ticks
what can you tell the patient to use to get a stool specimen from which you will collect a small sampling?
A clean paper plate
Grams's stain is used to
differentiate bacteria according to the chemical composition of their cell walls
What must a physician do to make sure that the pt. has an infection and not a problem from another condition
obtain one or more specimen
During the sensitivity test you subject bacteria to the antibiotic by
placing small disks of filter paper containing various anitmicrobrial agents on top of the inoculated agar plate
Bacilli are responsible for infections such as
Qualitative analysis is used to
determine the type of pathogen present in the culture
The reason to have the pt. get a clean-catch midstream urine specimen is to
minimize contaminates in the urine specimen
What is the main objective when transporting specimen to an outside lab
to maintain the samples in a state as close to their original as possible
Your physician needs a microbiologic specimen smear in a hurry. What can you do to speed the process along?
Nothing: it takes time to do it correctly
What type of media is Not recommended for use in growing cultures in the lab?
A culture and sensitivity test is done to determine not only what microorganisms is infecting the pt. but also
what antibiotic will be effective to use in the pts. treatment
A spirillun type of bacteria is
Shaped like a spiral
A common classification of microorganisms is
The most common device used to obtain cultures is
a sterile swab
To make sure the pt. is really giving you sputum, tell the pt. that the specimen must be
The differences between gram-negative and gram-positive
gram positive bacteria appear blue
What is the organism that is pathogenic, is much larger than bacteria and causes malasia?
Roundworms can be seen in childrens
KOH (potassium hydroxide) mounts are used when
the physician suspects a fungal infection of the skin
The study of simple forms of life is
The best location for obtaining specimen to diagnose strep throat is at the
back of the throat
Quality control involves
ongoing assessment of the reliability and quality of work performed
How are viruses different from bacteria
Viruses cannot be seen with a regular microscope
If the physician suspects protozoa or a parasitic infection, you will need to give the pt. a
special stool collection kit
acid fast stain
a straining procedure for identifying bacteria that have a waxy cell wall
a gelatin like substance derived from seaweed that gives a culture medium its semi-solid consistency
a bacterium that grows best in the absence of oxygen
an agent that kills microorganisms or supreses their growth
a rod-shaped bacterium
a distinct group of microorganisms visible with the naked eye, on the surface of a culture medium
to place a sample of a specimen in or on a substance that allows microorganisms to grow in order to identify the microorganism present
culture & sensitivity (C&S)
a procedure that involves culturing a specimen & then testing the isolated bacterias suspectibility (sensitivity) to certain antibiotics to determine which antibiotics would be most effective in treating an infection
a substance containing all the nutrients a particular type of microorganism needs to grow
a living microorganism or its toxin that may cause human disease
able to adapt to different conditions; in microbiiology able to grow in environments either with or without oxygen
a eukaryotic organism that has a rigid cell wall at some stage in the life cycle
referring to bacteria that lose their purple color when a decolorizer has been added during a Gram's stain
referring to bacteria that retain their purple color after a decolorizer has been added during a Gram''s stain
the study of microorganisms
fungi that grow in large, fuzzy, multi-celled organisms that produce spores
a substance such as iodine, that can intensify or deepen the response a specimen has to a stain
O & P specimen
an OVA and Parasites specimen or a stool sample, that is examined for the presence of certain forms of protozoans or parasites, including their EGGS (OVA)
an organism that lives on or in another organism & relies o it for nourishment or some other advantage to the detriment of the host organism
a single-celled eukaryotic organism much larger than a bacterium ; some protozoans can cause disease in humans
in microbiology, identification of bacteria present in a specimen by the appearance of colonies grown on a culture plate
quality control (QC)
an ongoing system, required in every physician's office to evaluate the quality of medical care provided
in Microbiology a determination of the number of bacteria present in a specimen by direct count of colonies grown on a culture plate
a specimen spread thinly & unevenly across a slide
a spiral-shaped bacterium
in microbiology, a solution or a dye or group of dyes that impart a color to microorganisms
a comma-shaped bacterium
one of the smallest known infectious agents, consisting only of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat; can live & grow only within the living cells of other organisms
a preparation of a specimen in a liquid that allows the organism to remain alive & mobile while they are being identified
a fungus that grows mainly as a single-celled organism & reproduces by budding