TMIKY ch 32, 33 , 34 & 46 Asepsis & microbiology

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TMIKY ch 32, 33, 34, & 46 Asepsis &Microbiology

asepsis

maintaining a strict housekeeping standard to reduce the number of pathogens present

With the past century's remarkable advances in identifying, preventing, & treating infectious diseases

the threat of infection is as great as it has ever been

Specific measures to help break the cycle of infection include all of the following except:

not allowing infected patients in the office

The single most effective way to break the growth cycle of tuberculosis bacteria is to prevent spread of the disease by

containing the pathogen by always using a tissue, & then discarding of it in a biohazard receptable

An opportunist infection

is possible because a host's resistance is low

A pt. exposed to a pathogen can be contagious through all 4 stages of the resulting illness but most often is contagious in the

invasion period

Microorganisms capable of causing diseases are also called

pathogens

When antibodies are introduced from Outside the body, the immunity is called

passive immunity

An endogenous infection occurs when routine body processes malfunction or are abnormal, while an EXogenous infection is one caused by

the induction of a pathogen from outside the body

An acute viral disease that involves gray matter of the spinal cord is called

poliomyelitis

In addition to a resevoir host, a means of exit, & a a means of transmission, the cycle of infection needs

a means of entrance & a susceptible host

A bacterial infection of the nose, throat, & larynx that can be fatal if left untreated is called

diptheria

Single-celled organisms found in soil & water that usually do NOT cause disease are called

protozoans

A disease that is transmitted via droplets & is very dangerous to the fetus if a pregnant woman contracts the disease is

rubella

In order for a microorganism to grow it requires

the proper temperature

A form of transmission of pathogens that involves droplets is called

airborne transmission

Microorganisms cause damage to the body by

depleting nutrients or other materials needed by the cells & tissues they invade

the cycle of infection begins with a reservoir host that provides the pathogen with nutrition & a place to multiply could be

animal, insect, or humans

The scientist responsible for introducing aseptic techniques through the use of antiseptics was

Joseph Lister

The microorganism's disease producing power is called

virulence

Ignaz Semmeliveis & a second physician promote handwashing as a means of reducing the spread of pueperal fever to women in childbirth. Who was that 2nd physician?

Oliver Wendell Holmes

Single-celled organisms that reproduce quickly & are a major cause of disease are called

bacteria

Of the non-specific defenses is a process whereby special white blood cells engulf & digest pathogens. This process is called

phagocytosis

The body has the ability to defend against the multitudes of pathogens it is exposed to on a daily basis because of the strong mechanical barrier that resist penetration. What is this barrier called?

the skin

The condition of being resistant to pathogens & the diseases they cause is called

immunity

You have had the mumps. Your son develops the mumps, but you do not get sick YOu have

Natural active immunity- Your body is exposed to a disease & creates antibodies against it that protects you when you are re-exposed

A 2 week old infant is exposed to the same virus its mother had during pregnancy, but the infant does not become ill It has

Natural passive immunity- Occurs when the mother's immunity crosses the placenta to the fetus

A health care worker receives a hepatitis B vaccine. He has

Artificial passive immunity- occurs when you are injected with a pre-made antibodies that protect you against a disease temporarily

A 65 year old patient gets a flu shot. She has

Artificial active immunity- occurs when an injection of organisms that do not cause disease cause you to produce antibodies to protect you from the disease.

Which of the following physicians demonstrated that puerperal fever, a disease that was responsible for the death of women in childbirth was carried from the patient to patient by doctors?

Oliver Wendell Holmes

An infection by microorganisms that can cause disease only when a host's resistance is low is a

...

Factors related to the host's susceptibility is

age & nutritional status

Beneficial bacterial found in the body that create a barrier against pathogens are called

normal flora

The destruction of infectious agents on an object or surface by direct application of chemical or physical means is

disinfection

Which of the following physicians concluded that pueperal fever was a communicable disease?

Ignaz Semmeliveis

In which way does a person develop a natural active immunity?

from exposure to organisms that cause a disease

The condition in which pathogens are absent or controlled is

asepsis

The first line of defense people have against disease is

intact skin

Which of the following is part of the sanitation of equipment?

soak instrument in disinfectant solution

Coughing & sneezing increase an individual's susceptibility to disease.

false

Phagocytes protect the body from infection by

finding, surrounding, & digesting intruding microorganisms

An endogeneous infection is one that is caused by the introduction of a pathogen from outside the body.

false

Escherichia coli

bacterial that can cause severe food poisoning

Louis Pasteur stated that

disease is caused by microorganisms

Is cholera caused by a virus?

no

Patients with chicken pox experience

an itchy rash that begins as tiny red bumps & eventually becomes fluid-filled blisters

Croup is a condition characterized by

a harsh , barking cough, difficulty breathing; hoarseness & low-grade fever

35 to 50 % of adolescents who become infected with the Epstein-Barr virus develop infectious flu & complain of fever, sore throat & swollen lymph nodes

false

A disadvantage of gas sterilization is

it uses ethylene oxide which is hazardous to humans & to the environment

Which of the following is commonly used in the laboratory setting to provide a measure of protection against transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

bleach

Which of the following methods of infection control requires the use of an autoclave?

sterilization

Which of the following is used to disinfect surfaces & soak rubber equipment before sanitation?

bleach

Which of the following is permissible in ultrasonic cleaning?

reuse the ultrasonic cleaning solution for several baths

Which of the following is used to clean delicate instruments or instruments with moving parts?

Ultrasonic cleaning

Which of the following is used both as a disinfectant & antiseptic, but its effectiveness is limited by the presence of blood products, mucus, or soap?

iodine

Which factor has an impact on the effectiveness of a disinfectant?

evaporation can alter the chemical makeup of the solution

The cleaning process that is required for all instruments that penetrate the skin or that comes in contact with normally sterile areas of the tissue & internal organs is

sterilization

Which of the following can be disinfected & reused without sterilization?

glasses & enamelware

Sterilization is the only reliable measure for

eliminating blood-borne pathogens

Can disinfectants, or cleaning products be used on human tissues?

no

If there is any doubt as to whether an item is sterile or not

consider it unsterile

When you work with a patient who has infectious tuberculosis

wear a personal respirator to prevent inhalation of the bacteria

Medical asepsis depends on a completely sterile environment that eliminates ALL microorganisms

false

Sterile items should only touch

sterile items

Which one do Health care workers become infected far more frequently on the job with the HIV infection or with the hepatitis B infection

Hepatitis B

According to OSHA are all health care workers required to be tested for HIV and HBV?

no

Does disinfectant kill bacteria spores?

no

The most effective method for preventing the spread of AID/HIV infection through sexual contact is

avoid high-risk sexual activity

Which of the following are symptoms of mycobacterium avium?

night sweats, fever, & weight loss

which disease called the fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B 19 & occurs mostly in children?

erythema infection

the appropriate way to dispose of needles to prevent the spread of AIDS/HIV infection is to

dispose of needles in a puncture-proof , biohazardous waster container

Leukopenia is defined a

a reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood

Which disease frequently leads to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)?

human T-cell lymphotrophic virus

Which classification of drugs would be used to treat the anemia related to AZT therapy?

hematinic

The disadvantage of treating HIV?AIDS early is

loss of treatment options in the future

A disease that spreads from person to person primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes is

malaria

Your best course of action in the prevention of blood-borne infectious disease is

to assume that every pt. is contaminated with blood-borne pathogens

The MAIN risk of hepatitis B & C is sexual activity

false

Patients who completely recover from Hepatitis B or C do not remain infected with the virus for life.

false

An employer may offer a vaccination for HBV infection at a small charge to the health care worker.

false

If you are exposed to hepatitis B & have not been vaccinated, you can

receive a postexposure inoculation of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)

Over a period of time in most cases, HIV infection

develops into AIDS which results in death.

Most cases of HIV infection in health care workers occur as a result of mucocutaneous exposure.

false

HIV infection is by far the single largest risk factor for

the development of tuberculosis infection into the active form of the disease.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRT's)

block the ability of HIV to make copies of itself

Does every state must report a patient who has HIV infection by name to the Center for Disease Control & Prevention?

no

The immunization that is highly recommended for elderly patients is the

influenza immunization

A pt. in room 4 has had a nosebleed, & after he leaves the room, you notice that there is blood on the pillowcase. You should

don gloves, gently fold the pillowcase, & place it in a red biohazardous laundry bag that has the biohazardous symbol on it

A "quick-opening tab" can be created by

folding a small portion of the tape back onto itself

A common cause of low temperature in the autoclave is

failure to preheat the autoclave chamber

Whenever possible, you should educate patients about preventing the transmission of disease; in case of disease, educate

regarding treatment of the disease

A corrosive & irritant to body tissues that is used to clean equipment is

formaldehyde

The infection-control step after sanitation & before sterilization to reduce or eliminate infectious organisms is called

disinfection

According to OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standards of 1991, any potential infectious waste materials must be

discarded into or held for processing in biohazardous waste containers

Which of the steps below is NOT part of a surgical scrub?

Use paper towels to dry hands on after washing

When you are ready to clean & scrub instruments you should

put on properly fitting, intact utility gloves

If you are running a load of instruments & wrapped packs, you should place the tray

containing the instruments BELOW the tray containing the wrapped packs

A cleaner that generates sound waves through a cleaning solution to loosen contaminants is called

an ultrasound cleaner

A category 111 task of standard precautions as outlined by OSHA

does not require any special protection

You are in the workroom, & a fellow staff member has dropped a glass & cut his hand. As he was trying to stop the bleeding, he left droplets of blood along the floor to the bathroom. YOu should

after seeing that he is okay, don gloves, pick the glass up with tongs, & follow office procedures for cleaning up a blood spill

If a member of the medical staff is infected with HIV or HBV, she should

not perform any procedures that might result in exposure for the patient without the advice of an expert review panel

After packs & instruments are sterilized in the autoclave, you must store them in

a clean, dry location

When you unload the items from the autoclave, place the items

in a place that is at room temperature

Transmission-based precautions include the use of goggles, masks&/or a respirator when a patient may have an infection

that could be spread by droplets, airborne transmission, or contact

which of the following penalties would occur if someone discovered that you repeatedly placed old dressings that have blood on them in the regular trash?

a fine of up to 70,000 dollars with a 5,000 dollar minimum & up to 6 months imprisonment if someone died

You are going to give a child his immunization . You notice that he has a runny nose. You should

take the child's temperature & if it is normal, go ahead & give the immunization

Tags, inserts, tapes, tubes or strips that confirm that the items in the autoclave have been exposed to the correct volume of steam at the correct temperature for the correct length of time are called

sterilization indicators

Personal protective equipment includes

gloves, masks, & protective clothes

The process of cleaning instruments & equipment with detergents & scrubbing as needed is called

sanitation

The best way to prevent the spread of infection by decreasing the susceptibility of the host is to have the patient

be immunized

In order for the steam to reach each instrument in a sterile pack, you should

wrap the pack loosely & have the instruments NOT touch each other in the pack

Any instruments or supplies that will penetrate a patient's skin have to be

sterilized

Symptoms of hepatitis include

jaundice, fatigue, vomiting, & joint pain

Blood borne pathogens can be transmitted by

touching infected blood, tissue , or body fluids

Which of the following blood borne pathogens poses the greatest risk?

two variants of the hepatitis virus (HBV and HCV)

An AIDS pt has coating of the tongue, reddened patches on the hard mucous membrane of the mouth, & patches on her tongue, You suspect she has

oral candidiasis

In addition to supporting & accepting a dying pt. no matter how he reacts to the dying process, you can also support the dying pt. by

providing referrals to hospices

Besides increasing the time between infections, improving the quality of life & reducing maternal- infant transmission of the virus, the treatment goal for HIV and AIDS patients is to

reduce transmission of HIV to uninfected people

The test that can confirm positive specimens of HIV infections in increasing numbers are

IV drug users & women

AIDS patients may experience symptoms such as

gastrointestinal complaints, depression, & Kaposi's sarcoma

When working with teenagers it is important to

help them realize that communicable diseases can happen to anyone & show them how to prevent contracting communicable diseases.

A reaction that occurs when the body is unable to mount a normal response to the invasion by a pathogen is

an anergic reaction

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test confirms

the presence of antibodies developed by the body's immune system in response to an initial HIV infection

A chronic disorder found in AIDS patients who have symptoms of fever cough & breathing difficulties & that is often overlooked is called

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

When working with pts who have AIDS, you should take precautions to prevent the spread of infections between

patients, yourself & the patient, and when you are working with equipment that may be contaminated.

Extreme itching, dysuria, & thick adherent discharge are symptoms of

vaginal candidiasis

Symptoms of syphilis are

chancre sores that appear on the tongue, lips, or genitalia

Adherence to OSHA guidelines regarding the spread of blood borne pathogens is important because

you must assume that every pt is contaminated with blood borne pathogens to prevent transmission during any procedure or treatment

When reporting a communicable disease, in order to complete the required forms, you will need to know the

disease identification code

Fusion inhibitor medication

block the entrance of the virus into the human cell

Toxoplasmosis is a disease that is found in

cat feces

The therapy of combining three or more HIV drugs is called

highly active antiretroviral therapy

During the 3rd stage of syphilis , the pt may experience

tumors of the skin, bones, & liver, as well as dementia

A moderately contagious disease seen mainly in children & often called the fifth disease is

erthema infectiosum

The advantage of being treated early for HIV is

the suppression of viral replication, thus a reduction in the risk of the pts transmitting HIV to others.

MAC is responsible for

97 % of the nontuberculosis bacterial infections in AIDS patients

Which of the following are characteristics of eukaryotic cells?

They have a complex cell structure containing a nucleus & specialized organelles in the cytoplasm

The most common way to classify bacteria is according to their

shape

Which of the following is an example of a microorganism that is classified as a prokaryotic cell?

bacteria

Examples of viruses include

chicken pox, croup, hepatitis, & influenza

Which of the following is a characteristic of a subcellular microorgainism?

a non-cellular structure in which the nucleic acid is surrounded by a protein coat

Which of the following are characteristic of viruses

they are among the smallest infecious agents & cannot be seen with a regular microscope

An example of a subcellular microorganism is a

virus

A bacteria that is spherical, round, or ovoid is a

coccus

which of the following are characteristics of prokaryotic cells?

they are simple-structured with a single chromosome & no organelles

Bacteria that are comma shaped are

vibrio

Bacteria reproduce

very quickly

Trichinella spiralis is

a roundworm that enters the human body in infected meat that is eaten raw or insufficiently cooked

The most common device for obtaining cultures is the

sterile swab

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